Skip to main content

Full text of "The art of skating"

See other formats





"Red Cover" Series of Athletic Handbooks 


c "W 

H^ American Sports Publishing Co. jfif|| 

^W/^iw.,,,. 'ii [; 21 Warren street, JVewYbr^C i^i^Jo^S 

S^ 1>" /if III. SSKi rP4i 

t-s&SMtm «lIIiifiifffiiiaiMaiii[iifininfuiiiiifiiiiifi[iiriifiiififfHffrifiiiiirr«siJifl«fiiiiHii«iriiifiiiifuiiiiiifi(iriiiiiifiirii»Hiiitrtfiii/Ull' • ^tw^SC* ,|i||» 


^^ ^^^i^'i^v^.-'^^:^ 1 ^m , M^7¥^w : m^ ^pW7wm ^M^i^:^^ v^^ywzw^y^^^ 











("105 Nassau Street 
New York \ 28 New Street 

[518 Fifth Avenue 

Hempstead, N. Y., 89 Main Street 

Lake Placid, N.Y., Lake Placid Club 

Albany, N. Y. . . 52 State Street 

r, a- 1 mvI 2o8 Main Street 
Buffalo, N. Y. ^ 226 Franklin Street 

Syra'cuse, 357 South Warren Street 

Rochester, 40 Clinton Ave., North 

Newark, N. J. . 589 Broad Street 

Bridgeport, Conn., 248 Fairfield Ave. . 

Boston, Mass. ..11 Otis Street 

p«i 1 j f !_• /«i? South 1 6th Street 
Ph.ladelph.a [^ North ^ Street 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 608 Wood Street 
Baltimore, 1 10 East Baltimore Street 
Washington, 1338 G Street, N. W. 
Atlanta . 74 Broad Street, N. W. 
New Orleans, 130 Carondelet Street 
Jacksonville . 23 So. Hogan Street 


San Francisco, 1 56-158 Geary Street 
Los Angeles, 716 South Hill Street 
Oakland, Cal. . 1751 Broadway 
Del Monte, Cal., 

London, England 
317-18, High Holborn, 
78, Cheapside, E. C. 2 
Liverpool, England 

22, Lord Street 
Birmingham, England 
69, New Street 
Bristol, England 

42, High Street 
Manchester, England 

4, Oxford Street 
Leeds, England 
3-5, King Edward St. 



Chicago . 211 South State Street 
Champaign, 111., 612 East Green St. 
Indianapolis, 136 N. Pennsylvania St. 
Milwaukee, 379 East Water Street- 
Minneapolis, 52 Seventh St., South 
St. Paul . 386 Minnesota Street 
Detroit . 533 Woodward Avenue 

. 119 East Fifth Street 
1434 Euclid Avenue' 

. 197 South High Street 
Toledo, Ohio, 427 Superior Street 
St. Louis, Mo. . 823 Locust Street 
Kansas City, 918 Grand Avenue 
Louisville, 331 West Walnut Street 
Oklahoma City, 320 N. Broadway 
Memphis, 104 South Second Street 
Denver, Col. , 161 5 Welton Street 
1 5 18 Main Street 
803 Locust Street 
206 Losoya Street 
Houston, Tex. 121 5 Prairie Avenue 
Omaha, Neb. 1618 Harney Street 
Sioux City, la., 413^ Nebraska St. 

Portland . . . 187 Sixth Street 
Seattle . . 1204 Second Avenue 
Salt Lake City, 21 E. First South St. 

Hotel Del Monte 

Paris, France 

25-27, Rue Trohchet 

Cannes, France 
(Alpes Mari times) 
89, Rue d'Antibes 

Brussels, Belgium 
55,Ruede PArbre Benit 

Vancouver, B. C. 
424 Hastings St., W.- 

Dallas, Tex. 
Des Moines 
San Antonio 

Brighton, England 

99, St. James Street 
Southsea, England 

94, Palmerston Road 
Edinburgh, Scotland 
3 South Charlotte St. 
(Cor. Princes Street) 
Glasgow, Scotland 

2i Jamaica Street 
Belfast, Ireland 

15 Lombard Street J hannesburg,So. Africa 
Sydney, Australia (Summer House) 

352 Kent Street 74 President Street 

Communications directed to A. G. Spalding OC Bros., at any of the above 
addresses, will receive prompt attention. 









We also sell a complete line of Spalding 
Athletic Goods as well as all the 
books of the Spalding Athletic Library. 



When ordering Athletic Goods use this 
sheet. Simply tear it out along dotted 
line, fill in your wants on the reverse 
side, and mail it with the price as noted. 



Enclosed please find $ %_■_ 

for which send me the articles listed helow : 




Description of Article 
















July 35 c ) 

July 25C 

October 25Ce 

October 35Cs 

September 25c , 

April 35Cs 

October 25C& 

June 35Cc 

September 25 C« 

Yearly 25Ce 

Yearly 25c, 

January 35c, 


Group I. 

Base Ball 

No. 100X. Spalding Official 
Base Ball Guide. Major and 
minor league averages, annual re- 
views, world series, official playing 
rules, knotty problems, pictures of 
big league players and action scenes 
in world series and major league 
games.' . . . Price 35 cents 

No. 82X. Knotty Base Ball 
Problems. Price 35 cents 

No. 59B. "The Little Bed 

BOOR.'* Base Ball Best-on-Record 
(no league averages), including world 
series records. . Price 50 Cents 

No. 508B. Beady Beckoner 
of Base Ball Club Stand- 
ings. . . . Price 50 Cents 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 12R. Indoor Base Ball 

No. 79R. How to Pitch 

No. 80R. How to Bat 

No. 81R. How to Umpire 

No. 83R. How to Organize a League; 
Maaage a Team; Captain a Team; 
Coach a Team; Score a Game; Ar- 
range Signals; Lay Out a Diamond 

No. 96R, How to Catch, How to Run Bases 

No. 97R. How to Play the Infield and Outfield. 

Group I. — Continued Base Ball 

No. 202R. How to Play Base Ball (In= 
eluding "Base Ball for Beginners") 

Group II. Foot Ball 

No. 200X. Official Foot Ball 
Guide . . . Price 35 Cents 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 
No. 5R. Interscholastic Foot Ball Guide 
No. 47R. How to Play Foot Ball 
No. 108R. Official Intercollegiate Soccer 

Foot Ball Guide 
No. 39R. How to Play Soccer (Including 

Official Playing Rules) 
No. 116R. Women's Soccer Handbook 

Group III. Tennis 

No. 57X. Spalding: Tennis 
Annual. The leading year-book 
of the game. Official playing rules, 
scores of national championships, 
Davis Cup and other events. 

Price 35 Cents 

No. 51 OB. Tennis for The 
Junior Player, The Club 
Player, and The Expert. By 
W.T.Tilden2nd. Price 50 Cents 
No. 51 IB. How to Build a 
Tennis Court. Price 50c. 

The following number, 25 cents. 
No. 84R. Tennis Errors and Remedies 

Specially Bound Series of Athletic Handbooks 

Any 50 cent book will be bound in flexible or stiff cover for $1.00; any 3 5 cent book will be bound 
in flexible or stiff cover for 85 cents; any 25 cent book will be bound in flexible or stiff cover for 
/ocentB: orany two 10 centbooks in one volume for 75 cents. One 25 cent book or two 10 cent 
books will be bound in imitation leather in one volume for SI. 00. One 35 cent book will be bound in 
imitation leather for $1.25. One 50 cent book 

style of binding preferred. 

: will be bound in imitation leather for 81 .50. Mention 

»_...,. <C°?tji"ied on next Page. Prices subject to change without notice.) 

ranted id u. a. A. 



Group IV. Golf 

No .3 X. Spalding Golf Guide. 

The popular annual of the game. 
Records of leading events, pictures 
of champions; with special rules 
section in vest pocket size. 

Price 35 cents 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 4R. How to Play Golf 

No. 63 R. Golf for Girls. (Cecil Leitch) 

Group V. Basket Ball 

No. 700X. Official Basket 
Ball Guide . Price 35 Cents 

The following number, 25 cents 

No. 17R. Official Women's Basket Ball 

Group VI. Skating and Winter Sports 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 8R. The Art of Skating 

No. 72R. Figure Skating for Women 

No. 90R. Ice Hockey Rules (Including 

Rules for Speed Skating 

and Curling) 

Group VII. Track and Field Athletics 

No. IX. Spalding Athletic 
Almanac. Olympic, world and 
A. A.U. records ; pictures of world 
record holders, Olympic and national 
champions ; with supplement con- 
taining rules for conducting a track 
meet Price 35 cents 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 
No. 45R. Intercollegiate A.A.A.A. Offi- 
cial Handbook 
No. 94R. Olympic Games of 1920 
No. 112R. National Collegiate A.A. Official 

No. 69R. Athletics for Girls 
No. 115R. Official Handbook National 
Committee on Women's Ath- 
letics of American Physical 
Education Association — In- 
cluding Rules for Track, 
and Swimming 
Official Athletic Rules (A. A.U.) 
following numbers, 50 cents 
How to Sprint 
College Athletics 
Middle Distance and Relay 

How to Hurdle 

No. 117R. 

Each of 
No. 500B. 
No. 501B. 
No. 502B. 

No. 503B. 

Each of following numbers, 75 cents 
No. 504S. Pole Vault 
No. 505S. High Jump 

Group IX. Water Sports 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 91R. Intercollegiate Swimming Guide 
No. 106R. Science of Swimming 
No. 107R. Swimming for Women 

Group X. Games for Women and Girls 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 
No. 17R. Official Women's Basket Ball 

No. 38R. Field Hockey Guide 
No. 89R. Learning to Play Field Hockey 
No. 69R. Track and Field for Girls 
No. 115R. Official Handbook National 
Committee on Women's Ath- 
letics of American Physical 
Education Association — In- 
cluding Rules for Track, 
and Swimming 
No. 116R. Women's Soccer Handbook 
No. 107R. Swimming for Women 
No. 72R. Figure Skating for Women 

Group XI. Lawn and Field Games 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 
No. 43R. LawH Games— Archery ; Roque; 
Croquet; English Croquet; Lawn Hock- 
ey; Tether Ball; Clock Golf; Golf- 
Croquet; Hand Tennis; Hand Polo; 
Wicket Polo; Badminton; Drawing 
Room Hockey; Garden Hockey; Basket 
Goal; Pin Ball; Cricket 
No. 86R. Quoits, Lawn Bowls, Horse- 
shoe Pitching and Boccie 
No. 113R. Official Lacrosse Guide 

Group XII. Miscellaneous 

No. 105X. Camps and Camp- 
ing Price 35 Cents 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 114R. Official Hand Ball Guide 

No. 119R. Croquet Rules 

No. 120R. Volley Ball Guide 

The following number, 10 cents 
No. 234. School Tactics and Maze 

No. 282. Roller Skating Guide 
No. 325. Twenty Minute Exercises 

Group XIII. Manly Sports 

No. 25B. Boxing 

Price 50 Cents 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 
No. 19R. Professional Wrestling 
No. 21R. Jiu Jitsu 
No. 30R. The Art of Fencing 
No. 65R. How to Wrestle 
No. 78R. How to Punch the Bas 
No. 118R. Intercollegiate Wrestling 

(Continued on next page. Prices subject to chanffs v'thout notice.) 



Group XIV. Calisthenics 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 
No. 10R. Single Stick Drill 

Indian Clubs, Dumb Bella and 

Pulley Weights 
Dumb Bell Exercises 

Graded Calisthenics and Dumb 
Bell Drills 

No. 22R. 



Group XV. Gymnastics 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 14R. Trapeze, Long Horse and 
Rope Exercises 

No. 40R. Indoor and Outdoor Gym- 
nastic Games 

No. 52R. Pyramid Building 

No. 49R. How to Bowl 

No. 56R. Ground Tumbling and Tum- 
bling for Amateurs 

Group XVI. Home Exercising 

Each of following numbers, 25 cents 

No. 51R. 285 Health Answers 
No. 98R. Ten Minutes' Exercise 
Busy Men 


No. 54R. Medicine Ball Exercises; In- 
digestion Treated by Gym- 
nastics: Physical Education 
and Hygieae 

Spalding Score Books, Competitors' Numbers, Etc. 

Made in three styles — Morse (N09. 3, 4 and M) ; A. G. Spalding style (No. 2) ; 
John B. Foster style (No. F). The Spalding style has diamond shaped spaces 
for scoring. 


No. 2. Board cover, Spalding style, 22 games Each, $0.50 

No. F. Board cover, Foster (reporters') style, 26 games " .65 

No. 3. Board cover, Morse style, 46 games " 1.25 


No. 4. Morse style, 8%xl0% in., 30 games Each, 2.25 

Score Cards, 1 game Dozen, .10 


No. A. Collegiate, paper cover, 10 games Each, .25 

No. B. Collegiate, board cover, 40 games , " .65 

No. W. Women's, board cover, 27 games •« .65 


Track and Field Score Card9 Dozen, .60 

No. I. Tennis Score Card, endorsed by leading umpires; used in 

national championships; new and improved design; for five 

sets; in two colors Dozen, .75 

Golf Score Sheets; used in leading tournaments; size 22x28 in.; match 

play or medal play (specify which is wanted) Each, .15 

FIELD HOCKEY SCORE BOOK— board cover, 50 games " .50 

HAND BALL SCORE BOOK— board cover, 100 games " .50 


Used in A.A.U., intercollegiate and interscholastic championship events. 
Made up in sets (1 to 50, 1 to 100, etc.). 

Manila paper Per number $0.02 Linen backed Per number $0.12 

Letters, A, B, C, D, etc., on manila paper, for relay races Per letter .05 

Any of the above mailed postpaid on receipt of price. 

American Sports Publishing Company, 45 Rose St., New York 


The Author. 

j Qi j — Spalding " Red Cover " Series of < — j p j — ' 
r~j \~ -* Athletic Handbooks No. 8R LZj p" 





Champion of America, 1906; Member St. 
Moritz International Skating Association; 
Honorary Member of the Eisklub, Berlin, 
The Club des Patineurs and The Champs 
Ely sees Skating Club, Paris; Founder of 
the International Skating Club of America; 
and Author of "Art of Skating," Arden 
Press, London, 1910. 

published by 

- J — 1 COMPANY , — ! L 

" I v^wivJLjr.fYi\ 1 j • "— * 

- _-. ZD 45 Rose Street, New York r— ' '-' ' — 1 

][_ _ r3j-jQ| 

Copyright, 1928 


American Sports Publishing Company 
New York 





• • 


History of Skating.— Origin. The Patron Saint of Skaters. 

Bone Skates. . . . . . . . • ' Q 

Interesting Chronological Data 13 


Form in Skating.— Faults. Carriage of the Head, the 
Arms, the Unemployed Leg. National Styles. Rules 
for Correct Form. ....... 10 


Elements of Figure Skating.— The Curve a Basic Figure. 
Large Size Important. Elementary Figures, Turns, Free 
Skating Elements. American Figures Not in School 
Figures. . 23 



Prescribed or School Figures — Origin. Schedule of 
Figures. Fundamental School Figures. Combinations 
in Paragraph Form. Single Foot Figures. Manner of 
Skating. Hints on Learning. General Remarks. 
Skating to Place and Before Judges. .... 29 


Free Skating. — Manner of Skating. Grace. Grapevines. 
Spins. Toe and Heel Movements. The Spread-Eagle. 
The Run. Spirals. Jumps. Diagrams of Figures. 
Suggested Programmes. Music. ..... 72 

Special Figures. . . . . .... 108 


Skating for Women. — The Perfection of Grace. Old vs. 
New Style. Dancing. European Experts. Costume. 117 


Pair Skating. — Arm and Hand Positions. Suggestions 
for Simple and Advanced Combinations. Article by 
Herr Burger. Explanation of Burger-Hubler Pro- 
grammes. . . . . . •■:■■-■.. . ■ . 125 


Dancing on Skates. — The Valse and Its Proper Execu- 
tion. Various Dances. Skating the Lancers. Rules 
for Valsing Competitions. Programmes. Music. . 155 




Competition and Exhibition Skating. — Rules for Judg- 
ing International Competitions. Skating Tests — Pro- 
grammes. ......... 182 

General Skating Information. — Ice Rinks and the Mak- 
ing of Ice. Carnivals. Skate Sailing. An Inexpensive 
Private Ice Rink. ........ 196 

Badge of 
Cnternational Skating Club of America. 




In this book the author has endeavored to condense some of 
the mass of material which he has collected during many years 
of the study and practice of figure skating in the United States, 
Canada and the skating centers of Europe. 

Enthusiastic interest and unusual opportunity for comparing 
the best styles of skating to be found among many nations, due 
to extended travel during the skating seasons, and the unbounded 
hospitality extended to him in all parts of the world where skat- 
ing is looked upon as sport in the best sense of the word, have 
caused the author to venture on this little volume, which, on 
account of its convenient size, can be carried about and easily 
referred to when the learner is on skates. It is with some slight 
sense of responsibility, therefore, and as a contribution to national 
interest in a sport which really originated in America, that he 
endeavors to here set down his analysis of the new, artistic figure 
skating destined soon to be the standard all over the world. 

In the preparation of this work he has been indebted to skating 
friends all over the world, to whom he now makes grateful 
acknowledgment. Not until work of this kind is attempted 
does one realize how strong are the bonds of friendship among 
enthusiastic followers of any sport. It is not possible for him 
to specifically name all those from whom help' has come, but he 


wishes particularly to acknowledge his indebtedness to the fol- 
lowing persons : Herr Ulrich Salchow and Herr Bror Meyer, 
Stockholm ; Dr. Gilbert Fuchs, Munich ; Mr. G. E. Sanders, 
Petrograd ; Herr N. Panin, Petrograd ; Herr George 
Helfrich, Berlin; Herr Gustav Hiigel, Vienna; Herr Heinrich 
Burger, Munich ; Colonel H. V. Kent, R. E., London, England ; 
Monier- Williams, London, England, on "Figure Skating" ; 
Ernest Law, London, England, "Valsing on Ice" ; Mr. and Mrs. 
J. H. Johnson, London, England; Mr. E. B. Cook, Hoboken, 
N. J.; Mr. Charles A. McDonald, Fall River, Mass.; Mr. 
George H. Browne, Cambridge, Mass., and to Mr. James A. 
Cruikshank, New York, for special articles and assistance in 
preparation of the manuscript, also to Messrs. Doubleday, Page & 
Co., of Garden City, N. Y., for photographs. 




Origin. The Patron Saint of Skaters. Bone 


The origin of skating is shrouded in mystery. Whether it 
began in that fondness for moving about from place to place, 
that nomadic instinct inherent in the strong, virile races of the 
north, or whether, like other inventions, it was a lazy man's con- 
tribution to easy motion with least expenditure of energy, is inter- 
esting speculation. Perhaps skating was one of the earliest forms 
of communication among peoples of the cold north, and in thus 
serving the ends of commerce, which is the foundation of all 
civilization, it is entitled to honorable place in the annals of the 
world's progress. In any case, it is probably a development of 
a crude necessity of life, which in time contributed more to 
pleasure than need, like other fine modern pastimes, such as 
yachting, which was born of the hard toil of the sea, or hunting, 
which is a relic of men's search for food. 

The earliest recorded mention of skating is in connection with 
St. Liedwi, of Scheidam, in Holland, who had so bad a fall on 
the ice in 1396 that she thenceforth gave up skating altogether 
and devoted the rest of her life to religious exercises. She may 
well be called the patron saint of skaters. 

But, much earlier than this date, skates are now definitely 
known to have been used, for bone relics, sufficiently intact to 
clearly demonstrate their use, have been dug up recently near 
Finsbury Circus, London, England, in the soft, boggy soil peculiar 
to that district, which were used about 1100 or even earlier. In 


Dug up in Moorfields, London, in 1841. Period of Henry II. (1133-1189). 




the famous diary of Evelyn, written in 1662, there occurs fre- 
quent mention of skating and skaters, while Pepys, in the same 
year, describes the fantastic costumes of the skaters and "the 
very short petticoats of the Princess of Orange" as she "did slide 
upon her scates, first on one foot and then on the other." 

Addison wrote a poem on skating in 1720, but in general it 
would seem that both the poets and the artists have neglected 
this most fascinating and graceful of sports. 



Interesting Chronological Data. 

For brevity's sake, the history of skating from that time to the 
present may be chronologically summarized as follows: 

1744. Skating Club of Edinburgh formed. First skating club. 
1772. Benjamin West, famous American painter, skated in 

England and attracted much attention. 
1791. Napoleon Bonaparte, then a student at the Ecole Militaire, 

narrowly escaped drowning while skating on the Moat 

of the Fort at Auxerre. 
1809. First book on skating published in England, in Latin. 
1814. Book "Frostiana" published on the frozen river Thames, 

England. In that book the skater is recommended to 

carry a bag of shot in certain pockets to assist in correct 


1849. Philadelphia Skating Club organized. 

1850. E. W. Bushnell introduced all-steel skate, Philadelphia. 

These skates cost $30 per pair. 
1858-59- Central Park, New York, first opened to skaters. 
i860. New York Skating Club organized. 
1862. First Ice Skating Carnival in New York vicinity held on 

Union Pond, Brooklyn. 
1862. First "New York Club Skate" made from patent by Alex. 

1862. Minister who was a good skater denounced as having 

"fallen from grace." 

1864. Jackson Haines went abroad, electrified all Europe with 

his figure skating, and remained there until his death. 

1865. Colonel W. H. Fuller, "Father of Figure Skating in New 

England," went abroad ; skated in many European cities. 


T3 I- 


08 HJ 



^ ° 






h (LI 




-fa 2 





^" .« rt 

K^ C -H 

^^ . 


■~^ o 






r <u 
<u .is 


o . 



< u 

h-i . .. 

i— i jy 

rt - 

CJ .„ 

fa >H 


T3 ^ i-< 

H > 

PC u- 

(J —1 


02 • 


i — > 

5 < 

O N 


I rt 


. W rt 

\5 ~ 

pq J 

5 2^ 

5 M o 



CJ • <L> 

1 > Ih 


5 r ^ 


< W 

l-r< • r- 

c ^^ 

W W 

"^ <£ 

C/2 H 

o x „_r 

N C 

W fe 

O C u 

>— /) 

« o 

ic 3 

° n 


'— -^. 

>< S 


■SI J, 

g w 

c— >-o 

■^ s 

o y 

P=2 o 


ao x 





t« o . 

5 s 


a *** 


c/5x . 



o i— » 



• • l ~* 


I— » 

bow, 1 " 1 


h -1 

H- 1 

T ,~ w 


o "3 



2 u 




i— I 

iL> -*d 






1865. "Halifax" skate, also known as "Acme," invented; 
achieved world-wide popularity. 

1865. Du Maurier, in Punch, humorously cartooned and versified 


1866. Callie Curtis and E. T. Goodrich skated in European cities. 
1868. Dr. Daniel Meagher and John Meagher, Canadians, skated 

throughout the United States. Fathers of pair-skating. 
1868. First rink in Canada opened, Toronto. 
1870. "Gutter," or deep grove, first cut in skate runner. 
1875. Jackson Haines died, in Gamla-Karleby, Finland, and 

natives inscribed on his monument, "To The American 

Skating King." 
1886. National Amateur Skating Association formed in United 

States by E. W. Burr, F. P. Good, James B. Story, T. 

A. Williams, S. J. Montgomery, Geo. D. Phillips, E. B. 

Cook and W. B. Curtis. 

1888. Louis Rubenstein organized Amateur Skating Association 

of Canada. 

1889. Col. W. H. Fuller organized New England Skating 


1890. International Skating Contest, Petrograd. Louis Ruben- 

stein, Montreal, won medal. 

1891. Representative organization adopted official standard of 

American skating used up to revision of 1902. 
1893. First World's Skating Championships held. Won by F. 

Englemann, Vienna. 
1902. American skating standard revised by leading American 

skaters, including Good, Story, Rubenstein, Phillips, 

Bacon, Evans and Dr. Keane. 
1904-06. Miss Mabel Davidson skated in exhibitions throughout 

1008. Irving Brokaw won prize in the International style, St. 

Moritz, and skated in exhibitions of that style through- 
out Europe. 
1910. Conservatory Lake, Central Park, New York, set aside 

exclusively for figure skating. 

i. E. B. Cook, New York, "Father of American Figure Skating"; 2. W. F. 
Duffy, New York, American Champion, 1904; 3. Geo. D. Phillips, New 
York, American Champion, 1892, 1895, 1897, also Speed Champion; 4. Dr. 
A. G. Keane, New York, American Champion, 1898, 1899, 1900-02, 1905; 
5. J. F. Bacon, Boston, American Champion, 1893; 6. Louis Ruhenstein, 
Montreal, American Champion, 1888, 1889; 7. E. W. Bassett, New York, 
American Champion, 1907. 



191 1. American amateurs invited, for the first time, to skate in 
International style in World's Championships. 

1915. Great revival of interest in skating in United States. 

Hippodrome, New York, imported ice ballet from the 
Admiral's Palast, Berlin, the entire surface of the great 
stage being frozen for the spectacle, "Flirting at St. 

1916. Rinks opened in principal cities of the United States. 

Climate no longer a bar. San Diego, Cal., where frost 
never occurs, operates a rink successfully. The new 
rinks in San Francisco created a furore in that city, 
while Portland, Oregon, boasted of an ice hockey team that 
competed successfully with crack teams in Canada and 
the Eastern cities on the latters own ice. Biltmore 
Hotel, New York, opens an ice skating rink. 

1917. Interest in skating unabated. Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New 

York, instals an ice rink. Visit of Ulrich Salchow, 
Bror Meyer and Miss Emmy Bergfelt, famous Continen- 
tal Skaters, to America. 




Faults. Carriage of the Head, the Arms, the 
Unemployed Leg. National Styles. Rules 
for Correct Form. 

One of the chief objects of artistic skating is to encourage, 
rather than to repress, the latent individuality of the skater, and 
nothing in the rules for good form prevents this development of 
the personal element. 

Correct form is too often held subsidiary to correct tracing 
of figures on the ice, which is a great mistake. It is advisable 
for a beginner to study good form, rather than correct tracing, 
until a perfect skating position becomes the natural one for him 
to assume when endeavoring to attain this perfect tracing. 

The most common faults are : drooping the head, flourishing 
the arms, bending the body from the hips, and exaggerated bend- 
ing of the unemployed leg. 

As far back as 1863 the experts were aware of the importance 
of the carriage of the head when it was said : "All the intri- 
cate figures amount to nothing if the position of the body is 
awkward or ungraceful. The position of the head is the most 
important thing to be observed, as most of the direction is 
obtained thereby." 

Drooping the head gives a very slovenly appearance, and is 
caused chiefly by the skater looking at the marks made by his 
skate on the ice. Part of a skater's training should be fre- 
quently to practise some of the school figures without glanc- 
ing downwards. It is essential to know where to put a turn, 
etc., and a momentary glance at the ice is therefore allowable, 
but the head must at once be raised to an upright position. 

The arms should not be held high or thrown about unneces- 
sarily; they must be used to do their proper share of the work 


in turns, etc., but not, as a tight-rope walker uses them, solely 
to maintain a balance. Any excessive use of the arms should 
not be allowed to become a habit, as it is quite unnecessary to 
one who is thoroughly master of his skates. 

The bending of the body sideways from the hips is caused 
simply by the fear of falling when learning to travel on an edge, 
but this fault is not likely to cling to a skater after his novitiate. 
The bending forward of the body is essential for certain move- 
ments, such as taking a stroke forward, but care must be taken 
to assume an upright position as soon as possible. 

The unemployed leg must be only slightly bent ; excessive hook- 
ing gives it a very clumsy appearance, and, moreover, does away 
with its utility. This "unemployed" leg is sometimes called the 
"balance" leg, which is perhaps a more correct term, because, 
although the skate is off the ice, the unemployed leg has as much, 
if not more, control in the execution of a movement than the 
employed, or tracing, leg, and it must be used to help the skater 
and not be repressed. Smoothness and grace in skating is largely 
due to the proper use of the limbs. The unemployed foot must 
be carried in such a manner that the toe is always pointing 
downwards and outwards. Carrying the toe outwards is man- 
aged by turning the unemployed leg outwards from the hip. 
This will be found not easy at first. It is, however, essential 
that a skater should overcome this difficulty by practise, if pro- 
ficiency is to be obtained. 

In practise, every school figure must be started from rest. 
Thus, starting on the right foot, the whole of the momentum 
required to complete the figure must be gained by one stroke 
from the side of the left skate. There must be no suspicion of 
a previous stroke from the right. It is important that the skater 
should take the initial stroke from the side and not from the 
toe of the skate. 

The Three Different Styles. 

Now, heretofore, the American style has put almost no re- 
strictions on the use of any available assisting movement. 


The English style, on the other hand, forbids any assistance 
from the movement of the arms, the swinging of the free foot, or 
the bending of the skating leg. The skating leg is always stiff; 
the unemployed leg, as they aptly call it, after the thrust must 
touch the skating leg, and the arms, with the elbows turned in, 
must hang loosely or slightly bent. But, according to a prominent 
English authority, this English style, which was promulgated by 
"a small group of anything but gainly skaters, proceeded to 
advance an altogether unnatural theory of rigidity of back as 
essential to the proper deportment of every figure skater worthy 
of the name." This style "came in mysteriously, with the ram- 
rod deportment, the horsehair furniture, and the other cold, 
stuck-up stiffness of the early Victorian era. It synchronized 
with the strenuous austerity and the stiff cravats of Cobdenisn 
and the easy grace of crinolines." 

The International style is that which is known as natural, free, 
uncramped, artistic, and in which the movements of the skater 
are allowed full scope tc assist the executions of figures by the 
skater, expressing and intensifying the effect, so as to produce 
a harmonizing and graceful result. 

Now this International style, which some persons ignorantly 
consider to be a product of the other side, is in reality the 
European development of American skating, carried to the Con- 
tinent in the winter of 1864-5 by Jackson Haines of New York, 
who was a dancing master, and who had less enthusiasm than 
his contemporaries (the New York Skating Club and the Phila 
delphia Skating Club and the Canadian skaters) for the inven- 
tion of one-foot, continuous figures, many of them made in small, 
kicked circles. His temperament affected artistic display and 
correct body positions (after the manner of the Russian dancers, 
now so much in popular favor), too, but in long, graceful curves 
or in dance strokes and steps. Now, this is the kind of skating 
which is advocated by the skaters of the new style. 

Striking developments have taken place in the last few years 
in the art of skating. The theory of the art has been made so 
simple, and the exposition of the theory so clear and practical. 


that not only may older people learn to skate from printed 
instructions, but boys and girls also, if once they think it worth 
while to try and get over the idea that the hockey skate and the 
game constitutes all there is in the art of skating. All persons 
who would like to learn to skate must devote themselves solely 
to the practise of the Art of Figure Skating and make use of 
the skate devoted to that purpose, which, instead of having a 
perfecly flat runner, is curved on the bottom, so as to make it 
possible to execute curves and circles on the ice, which are the 
fundamental elements of the art. 

Here are the rules for correct form, as laid down by the official 
standards, and the ways the best performers have attained it : 

I. Head erect, with eyes upon the ice seldom or never during 
the free-skating, and, in the school skating, no more than is 
absolutely necessary. 

II. Body upright, not bent forwards or sidewise from the 
hips, shoulders thrown back, and chest expanded. 

III. Arms, whether active or passive, should have free play 
from the shoulders, elbows slightly bent, hands with the palms 
downward or inward. 

IV. Skating leg always bent at the knee, to insure a springy 
rise and dip of the body. 

V. Free leg poised or swung entirely from the hip, in the 
socket of which it should be turned outward and backward as 
much as possible; always separated from the skating leg, knee 
slightly bent, toe pointing down and out. 




The Curve a Basic Figure. Large Size Important. 
Elementary Figures, Turns, Free Skating 
Elements. American Figures Not in School 

The elements of figure skating are : The curve, done on the 
four edges; outside and inside forwards; outside and inside 
backwards. It is the control of these circles that gives strength 
and power, and the holding of the body in the proper and grace- 
ful attitudes, while it is the execution of these large circles, 
changes of edge, threes and double-threes, brackets, loops, rockers 
and counters, which makes up the art of skating. 

It is a mistaken idea that skating large figures makes the exe- 
cution of small ones difficult; on the contrary, everybody should 
skate large first and then he can skate small figures more 
easily afterwards, and, besides, nothing contributes so much to 
good form as the execution of large figures and moves, especi- 
ally the plain circles, in easy and graceful positions. 


1. The Curve — The four edges, OF and IF, 

2. The Forced Curve, etc. (See under Brackets, Page 39.) 

3. The Serpentine — Change of Edge. F and B. 

The Turns. 
4- — Threes — OF and IB. 

Threes— IF and OB. 
$.— Combinations of Change and Three— -English "Q." 

Combinations of Three and Change — English Reverse "Q." 
(Not in the International School Figures.) 



6. Counter Threes or Brackets — Two forced curves. 

(These turns have a change of edge at the turns. The fol- 
lowing have no change of edge, before, at, or after) : 

7. Rockers — A curve and a forced curve — rotation like a 


8. Counters — A forced curve and a curve — rotation like a 


9. Double Threes — Three curves and two turns, the second 

curve of the first Three serving as the first curve of 
the second Three. Skated exactly like the single 




of Edge. 




Double Three. 



Difference between Counter 
Rocker and Three. 

Difference between 
Rocker and Three. 


10. Loops. 

11. Cross-cuts cr Anvils — American loops. 

(Not in the International School Figures.) 

12. Advanced Schoool Figures — Combinations of the above 

simple elements by means of the change of edge, viz. : 


1. Two Changes of Edge on one foot — One-foot Eight. 

2. Change-Three. 

3. Change-Double-Three. 

4. Change-Loop. 

5. Change- Bracket. 

(Nos. 2 to 5, Three-lobed Eights, or Paragraphs.) 

6. Three-change-Three. 

7. Double-Three-change-Double-Three. 

8. Loop-change-Looop. 

9. Bracket-change-Bracket. 

(No. 1 and Nos. 6 to 9 are Two-lobed Eights.) 
Rockers and Counters are skated only in Paragraph form, 
half-circle turn, and full-circle; not in two-lobed Eights, full- 
circle, turn at center, full circle. 

Other Elements, Not in the School Figures. 
Change of direction and edge by means of : 

1. Pirouette — On one foot. 

2. Jump — From one foot to the other. 

3. Strokes — Turn on one foot to curve on the other. Of the 

latter, two are common elements in free skating dance 

Other Free-Skating Elements. 

Beaks; Spectacles; Grapevines, and other march steps; varie- 
ties of Cross-cuts; Spread-Eagles, etc. 

American Figures (Not in the School Figures). 

A (: Q" (first called by the Vienna school, "Change-Turn") is 
a continuous stroke, consisting of a curve on one edge, chang- 
ing to a curve on the other edge of the skate in the same direc- 
tion, and followed by a three-turn, ROF to RIF to ROB, etc. In 
an outside "Q" the first stroke is an outside edge and the three- 
turn is an inside one. 

The Reverse "Q" (first called by the Vienna school, "Turn- 
Change"). Here a three is first executed, followed by a change 
of edge. 


The "Mohawk" is a method of going from forward to back- 
ward, or backward to forward, on an edge of the same char- 
acter. It is effected by spread-eagling the feet, and comes with 
facility to those who are able to get into the spread-eagled 
position, while it is capable of being acquired by those to whom 
this is a difficulty, by careful attention to the position of the body 
at the moment of change. For the forward Mohawk, the skater 
proceeds on a curve of ROF , and when he is about to effect 
the change to LOB, he thrusts back his left shoulder and brings 
forward the left leg in front of the right; then, turning the toes 
out as much as possible, swings it round and behind the right 
and places it down on the outside back, and at the moment it 
touches the ice he takes up the right. 

The change from a back to a forward edge is executed in the 
same way, only in this the unemployed foot is thrown behind and 
then swung round it and placed in front. The outside Mohawks 
are more difficult than the inside ones, as with the inside the feet 
have to be turned out far less than with the outside ones. In 
executing a Mohawk, the body is turned in the same way as in 
doing a bracket; in fact, a bracket has been well described as a 
Mohawk on one foot. 

It is also possible to go from outside forward to outside back 
by bringing the left shoulder forward instead of backward and 
rotating the body in the direction of an ordinary three. In prac- 
tice this can hardly be effected without a jump, as the toes have 
to be turned in at an extremely sharp angle, just as in the 
Mohawk they have to be turned very much outward. 

Starting as before from the outside forward, it is possible to 
put the other foot down on the inside back, instead of the outside 
back. This step is called a "Choctaw." If the direction of rota- 
tion is to the right, the corresponding turn is the OF rocker. 
If the revolution of the body is to the left, the corresponding 
turn will be the OF counter. When the rotation is to the right 
the turn is called a "Cross* Choctaw" So that, as a general rule. 
Mohawks correspond to brackets; cross-Mohawks to threes; 
Choctaws to counters, and cross-Choctaws to rockers. 


"All the cross strokes are extremely awkward, and can hardly 
be regarded as anything but skating curiosities ; it is not at all 
probable that they will ever win favor in practical skating. 
There seems to be no reason, however, beyond the difficulty of 
skating them, why the forward Choctaws should not, like the 
Mohawks, take their place in the regular repertoire of first-ciass 
skaters. It will be noticed that it is only by means of these 
steps that inside and outside back threes, emanating from and 
ending at the center, can be skated.' ' 

The "Once-back" or valse step, is a change from outside 
forward on one foot to outside back on the other, by means of 
a three-turn of the body. For example, a three-turn, shortly 
after which the free foot is dropped to the ice in its natural posi- 
tion on a new stroke; ROF three to LOB to ROF. These 
are the strokes employed in the skating of the valse, lancers, etc. 
(Called on the Continent "Englander.") 

American Figures Not in School Figures. 
No. From Corresponding Turn. Name. 

1 OF to OB Forward three Forward cross-Mohawk. 

2 OF to OB Forward bracket Forward Mohawk. 

3 OF to IB Forward rocker Forward cross-Choctaw. 

4 OF to IB Forward counter Forward Choctaw. 

5 OB to OF Outside back three Back Mohawk. 

6 OB to OF Outside back bracket. . .Back cross-Mohawk. 

7 OB to IF Outside back rocker. . . . Back Choctaw. 

8 OB to IF Outside back counter. .. Back cross-Choctaw. 

9 IF to IB Inside forward three. . .Inside Mohawk. 

10 IF to IB Inside forward bracket. Inside cross-Mohawk. 

11 IF to OB Inside forward rocker. Inside Choctaw. 

12 IF to OB Inside forward counter. Inside cross-Choctaw. 

13 IB to IF Inside back three Inside back cross-Moh. 

14 IB to IF Inside back bracket. .. .Inside back Mohawk. 

15 IBtoOF Inside back rocker Inside back cross-Choc. 

16 IBtoOF Inside back counter. .. .Inside back Choctaw. 

Professional Figure Skating Champion of the World. 




Origin. Schedule of Figures. Fundamental 
School Figures. Combinations in Paragraph 
Form. Single Foot Figures. Manner of 
Skating. Hints on Learning. General Re- 
marks. Skating to Place and Before Judges. 

These figures were gradually evolved by skating contests be- 
tween the various skating clubs in Europe, beginning with con- 
tests of the members of the Vienna Skating Club, whose stimu- 
lus for the art dates from the visit of Jackson Haines, the 
famous American skater, in the winter of 1864-5. 

Each prominent skating club holds a yearly contest to de- 
termine the club champion. Then the club champions of each 
country are pitted against each other to determine the national 
champion. In this way the art of skating has been improved 
and developed and the best skater selected to compete in the 
European and world's championship. 

It was the idea that the school skating should be built up 
out of fundamental elements, like a mathematical problem, with 
a logical consistency through it, so that from the beginning there 
might be no contradiction or lack of harmony. Ease of execu- 
tion was to be secured by the use of all possible auxiliary move- 
ments, the turns were to be made to appear not the result of 
effort, but simple and rhythmic, and, like a "leading motive," run 
through all the school figures. 


We will depart from old classifications and divide the School 
Figures into : 

1 — Fundamental School Figures. 

2 — Combinations in Paragraph Form. 

3 — Single Foot Figures (one-foot eights). 



The Schedule 

Elementary School Figures 


Description. Value. 



ROB— LOB. 1 

RIB— LIB. 2 


10. ROF—LOF. 1 

11. RIF—LIF. 1 

12. ROB— LOB. 1 

13. RIB— LIB. 2 
















5 a. 









































































Abbreviations; R— Right, L— Left, F— Forward, B— Backward, O— Outwards, 
I— Inwards. 



Advanced School Figures 


Description. Value. 





26a. R0IF—L01B. 2 

b. LOIF—ROIB. 2 

27a. RIOF—LIOB. 3 

b. LIOF—RIOB. 3 









32a. ROIF—LOIB. 3 

b. LOIF—ROIB. 3 

33a. RIOF—LIOB. 3 

b. LIOF—RIOB. 3 


No. Description. Value. 























ROB loop. 



LOF rocker. 


On double toe pirouette. 





All school figures should be skated as large as possible, de- 
pendent upon the power and ability of the skater. In general, 
the diameter of the circle for the plain circle eight, change of 
edge, etc., should not be less than ten feet, and as much larger 
than this size as can be done without departing from the cor- 
rect shape of the figures. Correct poise must be maintained 
to the full end of the figure, even if to do so requires slight 
temporary reduction in the size of the figure. Large size, 
combined with steadiness of poise, is the entire basis of suc- 
cess in learning artistic skating. / 

i. Fundamental School Figures. 

Fundamental School Figures are to be skated in the "eight" 
diagram. They are : 

(i) The four Plain Edges, outside and inside forward, and 
outside and inside backward, the initial stroke to be taken first 
on the right and then on the left foot. 

Note — This is the system to be followed throughout the entire 
school figures. 

(2) The five Threes, right outside forward to left outside 
forward, outside forward to inside backward, starting right and 
left, inside forward to outside backward, starting right and 

Note — The international programme contains Double Threes 
by themselves, and in combination with the change of edge, as 
the ordinary threes. The Double Threes are combinations of 
single threes, and are skated according to their rules. We have 
purposely left them out of our School Figure arrangement, as 
we only want here original elementary figures. 

(3) The four Loops, outside and inside forward, outside and 
inside backward. 

(4) The four Brackets, outside forward to inside backward, 
and inside forward to outside backward, changing the starting 


(5) The four Rockers, outside forward and outside back- 
ward, and inside forward and inside backward. Each to be 
skated by starting right, and then left, foot, and in the three- 
lobed eight diagram, but without any change of edges. 

(6) The four Counters, outside forward and outside back- 
ward, and inside forward and inside backward. To be skated 
in similar manner to the rockers. 

2. Combinations in Paragraph Form. 

These combinations are to be skated in the three- 
lobed eight diagram. 
i\ / (1) C Jiang e of edge, starting on right and left foot, 
on the outside edge, and the backward change, skated 
in similar manner. The changes are executed {a) out' 
side to inside, and {b) inside to outside. 

(2) The Change-Three. This figure is very important, as it 
includes all the preliminary changes of edge and all the threes. 
The start is outside to inside, on right and left foot, and inside 
to outside, on right and left foot; finish with a three. The 
"take-off" for the second half of the figure, whether started on 
right or left foot, is invariably backward. 

(3) The Change-Loop. Started right and left outside for- 
ward; right and left outside backward; finish with the loop. 
This figure is skated in the three-lobed diagram. It will be 
found necessary to skate this in the three-lobed eight diagram, 
on a considerably smaller scale than the others, in order to give 
the loops their proper size and finish. This arrangement con- 
tains all the loops and edges. 

(4) The Change-Bracket. Begin right and left outside for- 
ward; right and left inside forward; finish with the bracket. 

3. Single-Foot Figures (One- Foot Eights). 

(1) The One-Foot Eight, starting right and left for- 
ward; right and left backward. To be skated in the 
eight diagram, and the same size as the single plain 
circle eights. 

(2) The Threc-Changc-Three, starting right and 
left outside forward; right and left outside backward. 


(3) The Loop-Change-Loop. Skated in similar manner. 

(4) The Bracket-Change-Bracket. Skated in similar manner. 
These figures are to be skated in the eight diagram, with the 

turns and loops opposite to each other, on the axis, with the 
two tangents parallel. See Diagram, Page 69. 

Manner of Skating. 

Since the smoothness and grace of our skating is largely due 
to the proper use of the limbs, they must be used to help and 
not retard the progress of the skater, for it stands to reason 
that correct assisting movements by the limbs will contribute 
materially to correct tracings on the ice. 

Three things must continually be borne in mind : Keep the 
skating or employed knee bent at all times ; carry the unem- 
ployed toe down and outwards ; learn to copy the correct skating 

The object of the skater should be at the very outset to 
obtain power and control in the shortest time possible, and to be 
equally proficient on both feet. Usually one foot will be found 
considerably weaker than the other. Let the learner always 
remember if the left foot is the weaker to practise, on it all 
the more; if there is a disinclination to its use, to use it all the 
more, until the weakness is conquered. In every movement you 
acquire, be careful that you teach the left to do its duty until 
it is as proficient as the right. Do not be a one-legged skater. 

This power is attainable only by continual practise and mas- 
tery of the plain circles in large size, both forward and back- 
ward, skated on all the edges, starting right and left foot, for 
the difficult school figures, which the skater will attempt later, 
consist simply of turns on a circle or change of edge. If he 
obtains perfect control at the outset, so that he is able to "let 
the skate run," as I term it, the mastery of the more difficult 
figures will come easier, for then he will only have the turns to 
learn, the curves and changes before and after having been already 
mastered. The skater will also be doing his figures in cor- 
rect style, for feeling himself perfectly secure on the large 


edges, he will be able to devote his attention to proper positions 
of head, shoulders, arms, and skating leg. Good form is of 
the utmost importance; otherwise the skating cannot be artis- 
tic. The beginner at the outset must therefore study carefully 
the rules laid down for good form. (See below.) 

The skater must begin with the four plain edges and master 
each in turn, following the order laid down. 

Every school figure must be started from "rest." Thus, if 
you stand on the right foot, the whole momentum required to 
complete the figure must be gained by one stroke or thrust 
from the side of the left skate. There must be no suspicion of 
a previous stroke from the right. The stroke must be taken 
from the side and not from the toe of the skate. A powerful 
carrying start will be found extremely difficult at first, but its 
acquisition should be persisted in, since it is the foundation of 
a vigorous and graceful style. 

It is well to get into the habit of always practising your 
figures after the manner required for tests or competitions ; that 
is, skate each figure three times on alternate feet without 

Study carefully the exact shape of each school figure and 
practice accordingly. 

The novice will have a feeling of insecurity while taking up 
the outside forward and backward edges, for since the body 
inclines away from center of gravity, there is a tendency, in at- 
tempting to ward this off, to bend the body at the hips, This 
awkward movement should be studiously avoided. 

Valuable Aids in Learning the School Figures. 

The Plain Circles— Whenever the balance foot passes the 
skating foot from backward to forward, it passes close to it, 
so as to prevent rotation, the knee being turned out, the toe 
turned in. This is purely for artistic effect, since, the balance 
foot cannot pass the skating foot with the heel touching. Re- 
member that when one foot passes the other the knees neve* 


As soon as you bring the balance foot forward, rock (tilt) 
the upper part of the body slightly backward, in order to com- 
pensate for the weight of the unemployed leg in front; so, in 
like manner, lean forward when the balance foot is carried behind. 

In the OF plain circle, the balance foot does not pass by until 
three-quarters of the circle has been completed (twist the hips, 
but let the free foot lag behind). The arms, which are at 
first held back and on one side, are brought forward when half 
way through the circle, which brings them on the other side of 
the body or towards the center. 

For the IB plain circle, which is the most difficult one to start 
a. i make of required size, a departure is made from the gen- 
eral rule in regard to the bent knee. Before the middle of the 
circle the balance foot is brought back, when the skating knee 
straightens, and both arms arc brought close to the body. As 
the employed knee straightens, the balance foot, which should 
be behind, is moved up close to the heel of skating foot. Dur- 
ing the entire circle turn the head towards the start or center 
of the eight; in other words, keep your eye continually on the 
starting point of the eight. 

Rules Applying to Artistic Skating. 

The following rules apply in general to the attainment of 
artistic skating : 

The body should be held upright, but not stiff, and should not 
be bent forward or sideways at the waist. It should be held 
sideways to the direction of progress, as indicated in the dia- 
grams. The carriage of the shoulders is fundamentally asso- 
ciated with the accomplishment of many important figures; 
unless the body is turned and ready for the figure, its achieve- 
ment is impossible. Rigidity of the upper body, without stiff- 
ness, contributes much to grace and the ease with which figures 
are executed. 

The raising and lowering of the body, which should be only 
momentary, is attained by bending the knee. 


Compensation of weight is a subject which has formed too 
small a part of the study of skating. In general, when the body 
is leaning forward, the balance foot is held behind, and vice 
versa. When the balance leg is on one side of the body, the 
arms should be on the other side of the body, and the shifting 
of arms with leg should be almost instantaneous. 

The tracing leg should be generally bent at the knee and 
flexible. The knee of the balance leg should be turned out and 
the toe pointed outward and downward, the knee only slightly 
bent. The balance leg should swing freely and gracefully from 
the hip, which often greatly assists the movement. The knees 
should never be touching, and always well separated, but zot 
enough to give the effect of exaggerated spreading. 

The arms should be carried in the position of a normal but 
unaffected poise, the palms of the hands held downward and 
the fingers neither spread, clinched, nor hanging limply. 
Excellent poses, which the skater ambitious for good form may 
well study and copy, can be found in many of the classic models 
of ancient and modern sculpture. 

Threes — A Three is a turn in the natural direction, from an 
edge forward to the other edge on the same foot, backward, or 
vice versa. All threes may be skated without moving the bal- 
ance foot at the turn. 

In order better to skate these figures to place, while approach- 
ing the turn, follow with your eye the toe of your balance 
foot for the forward threes and the heel of your balance foot 
in the backward threes. This does not necessarily mean that the 
skater must bend his head over all the time, but simply take a 
quick glance at the place and time indicated. 

For OF Threes, the balance foot stays behind approaching 

For IF Threes, the balance foot stays behind approaching 

For OB Threes, the balance foot stays crossed in front. 

For IB Threes, the balance foot may stay crossed in front, 
but if difficulty is found in holding this position after turn, the 


balance foot may be left behind after the turn. Both 
positions would be considered correct in any com- 
petition before critical judges. 

The turns must be skated opposite to each other 
on the axis of the eight diagram. The connecting 
line (imaginary) between the turns passes through 
center of the eight. 

Double-Threes are combinations of the two of the four threes 
already given. Two of them put together form the combina- 
tion of the IF or OF double-threes, forward and backward. 

In the IF double-threes, the second turn, which is an outside 
backward three, is made differently from the single-back three. 
Before this turn keep the balance foot behind, and in front 
after it. 

Brackets, or, as sometimes called, counter-threes, are com- 
posed of turns identical as to edge with the three, but with 
the reverse, or unnatural, rotation, ROF to RIB. A bracket 
consists of two forced curves. [A Forced Curve, or False 
Serpentine, looks like a change of edge, but contains no change. 
It is not an independent element, but is always combined either 
with itself (a bracket) or with a turn (rocker or counter)]. 
These brackets have a change of edge at the turns, but the fol- 
lowing have 110 change of edge, before, at, or after : Rockers 
(a curve and a forced curve, rotation like a three — see below) 
and Counters (a forced curve and a curve, rotation like a 

For Brackets the important thing to remember is to keep the 
shoulders flat through the entire figure. This is one of the 
figures where a glance at the skating foot assists the correct 
turn. Same idea applied to skating as "keeping your eye on 
the ball" in the game of golf. 

For the OF bracket, keep the balance foot crossed behind be- 
fore the turn and crossed in front after the turn. 

For the IB bracket, keep the balance foot behind up to the 
turn and crossed in front after it, the same as in forward 


For the IF bracket, keep the balance foot in front before and 
behind after the turn. 

For the OB bracket, the balance foot should be brought back 
after starting, then cross in front over the print, just before the 
turn, then behind at the turn, and in front again after it, to 

a finish the curve in normal form. 
j Loops — For the OFloop keep the balance foot close 
/in. Do not let the rotation of the body throw this 
foot out where it has a tendency to go. 
In the OB loop, start as if to make an outside backward 
three, and very slowly. When executing the loop, keep your 
eye on the heel of the skating foot. The important thing is to 
preventation rotation of the body at the start; this means not 
to begin to rotate body before you want to make the loop, £S 
the loops must be placed opposite to each other. After com- 
ing out of the loop, do not look down at the loop, but keep the 
head turned over the unemployed shoulder. 

Rockers — A rocker is a turn in the same direction as the 
three, but to the same edge of the skate as before — ROF to 

Important things to remember are : Not to make any change 
of edge at the turn, and not to make the turn unless on a good 
edge. The difference between the rocker and the counter is : 
the rocker turn is easy to make, out the following -dge difficult 
to hold (especially for a full circle), and the counter turn is 
difficult to make, while the following edge is easy to hold. 

To do the turn properly, glance down at the moment of the 
turn to see the turn executed. This will prevent a change of 
edge, which is liable to occur, and a clear and well defined 
print ought to follow. After turn the skater must look quickly 
over his unemployed shoulder, forcing the employed arm and 
shoulder forward in the direction of motion to help hold out 
the following curve. 

In inside rockers, the second curve is almost more difficult 
to hold than the forward rocker, while the turn is a trifle 
easier. The IF rocker may be done by keeping balance foot in 
front, both before and after the turn. This turn is made en- 


tirely by the motion of the skating foot. In the IB rocker, the 
balance foot is held behind before, and left behind after, the 
turn; in other words, the balance foot is not moved at all, the 
body only moves during the turn. 

Counters — A counter is identical with the rocker as to edge, 
but the body revolution is made in the reverse direction, ROF 
to ROB. 

Remember that the counters are turned in the hip joint. There 
are three movements of the balance foot made, but in such close 
succession they do not show separately. 

For the OF counter, the shoulders are held flat with the 
direction of motion. The mistake is often made when skating 
the OF counter on the right foot that the left shoulder is 
brought forward before the turn; this must not be done, because 
a change of edge results. The same rule applies for the LOF 

Here are the three movements of the balance foot : Ap- 
proaching the turn the balance foot is moved in front, then 
swung quickly back just before it, and left crossed in front after 
it. The turn brings the balance foot naturally crossed over in 

The IB counter — Before the turn with the body in spread- 
eagled position look hard over the unemployed shoulder, so as 
to fall easily on to the following curve. 

It is interesting to note that similarity of position exists in the 
following movements : Before IF Three, before OB Counter, 
before OB Bracket, before IB Rocker. Also similar positions 
occur in the execution of the following movements : Start, OB 
Loop, before OB Three. Also in the following movements: 
Before IB Counter, before OB Rocker. 


Each school figure must be studied in connection with its 
corresponding figure in the programme on pages 30 and 31. 

Abbreviations— R, right; L, left; F, forward; B, backward; 
O, outward; /, inward; T } three; L, loop; B, bracket; R, 
rocker; C J counter. 



§ A 

Right Foot. 


D O 

Left Foot. 


Arrow direction of head. 

An eight consists of a stroke carrying through in a complete 
circle to the starting point, followed by a duplicate stroke on 
the other foot, returning to the same point ROF to LOF. 

No. i. 
Circle Eight— OF. 

No. 2. 
Circle Eight — IF. 


No. 3. 
Circle Eight— OB. 

No. 4. 
Circle Eight — IB. 

Fig. I — A-A is an imaginary line which is called the long 
•axis. B-B is another imaginary line, called the transverse axis. 

The long axis divides the eight longitudinally into two equal 
parts, and the transverse axis crosses the long axis at right 
angles, passing through the center of the eight. Thus, if a figure 
is skated correctly, the axes of the triple repetition should 

Fig. 2 shows an eight with the transverse and long axes of 
tht lower half misplaced. Instead of being in the position A-A 
and B-B, respectively, they are A' -A' and B'-B', thus destroying 
the symmetry of the figure. Both halves of the eight should 
be approximately of equal size, and each curve should be fin- 



ished near the starting point. Care should be taken not to skate 
a figure too large, or the clearness of the curve will disappear 
by the introduction of subcurves. There is a limit to the size 
of the figure which it is possible to execute correctly. This 
limit will only be found by practise, after which the skater 
should be careful not to exceed it, or the figure will be ruined 
by the introduction of subcurves. 

Correct shape 

and proper 

movement of 

balance foot. 

Wrong shape of 

figure and 
improper move- 
ment of balance 

Circle Eight — Outside Forward (No. i). 

Stand at rest with feet together. The first circle should be 
made starting with the right foot. Point the right shoulder 
towards the middle of the curve which is to be made, holding 
head erect and facing in direction of motion. 

At the start push directly from edge of left foot, leading well 
towards center. Get on a curve of good edge with shoulders 
sideways, as per diagram. Study illustrations for position of 

During first half of circle carry balance foot, pointing down 
and outward, behind and inside the print; twist the hips to the 
limit before letting it come forward towards finish of circle; 
bring it slowly past skating foot, with the balance knee turned 
out, bending employed knee even more while balance foot is 
passing. This combination of movement enables the skater to 
hold out full, rounded circles to the end. The arms, which are 
at first held behind, are brought forward to the other side of 
the body. Towards completion of circle, the body is slowly 
straightened and brought into readiness for the second half of 
figure on the other foot. 

Shoulders rotate slowly from the beginning, so that at the 
beginning of second circle they are almost flat with the direc- 

Middle of ROB circle, back view. 

ROF plain circle, back view. 

The start, ROF plain circle eight. 


Start ROF plain circle eight, 
fnni view. 


tion of motion, but balance foot is quiescent as long as possible, 
or at least two-thirds or three-fourths through the first circle. 

Circle Eight — Inside Forward (No. 2). 

Begin on a good edge, with the shoulders at the start 
"twisted" away from the center (left shoulder well forward), 
so as to untwist afterwards in the direction of the curve. 

For the first half of the circle, the body leans somewhat 
forward, and the balance foot, pointing down and out, is held 
directly over the print behind. At the beginning of the second 
half of the circle the body begins to straighten, and the balance 
foot, well pointed down, is brought slowly past as near as possible 
to the skating foot, the shoulders at the same time untwisting 
slowly. Towards the end of the curve carry the balance foot 
across the print, in order the more easily to make the curves 

When beginning the second half of the figure on the other 
foot make a vigorous thrust of the skating foot, which is turned 
well out, in order to catch a good inside edge. 

Circle Eight — Outside Backward (Xo. 3). 

Immediately at the start throw the balance shoulder and 
arm well out and back, and hold the balance foot in front 
across, inside the print and pointing down ; the skating knee 
must be well bent. The balance leg swings past when about 
one quarter of the circle is completed, its weight and movement 
contributing power; its subsequent spread-eagle position, well 
back over the print, helps to hold out the curve. The carriage 
of the head and shoulders is important; the chest is throv/n 
well out, and the head looks over balance foot shoulder, 
before the second half of the figure is begun on the other foot, 
there must be a very short change of edge at the end of the 
first circle, during which the shoulders are brought into posi- 
tion for the next strike-off. Just before the change, straighten 
the skating knee slightly, so as to obtain a strong take-off for 
the second circle. At the beginning of the second circle, the 
head should not be turned in the direction of motion until the 
skating foot has already begun the new curve. 


Circle Eight — Inside Backwards (No. 4). 

The great difficulty in. skating this figure is to get an efficient 
strike-off, so as to make the first circle as large as it ought to 
be. Stand firmly on the left foot, with the right foot straight 
out in front; now, with deep knee bending, push hard from the 
left inside edge, lunge with all your weight upon the right 
inside back, at the same time swinging the right arm and 
shoulder back and looking hard at the starting point. Keep 
the gaze fixed on the starting point throughout the entire fig- 
ure. The thrusting foot should now be in front, pointing down 
across the print; soon bring it slowly past the skating foot 
After the balance foot passes the skating foot, carry it in as 
nearly a spread-eagled position as possible, and follow it with 
your eyes, until ready to strike off in a similar manner on the 
other foot. 

The arms can be made to assist greatly in the size and per- 
fection of the figure by being brought quickly to the sides of 
the body at the same time that the skating leg is straightened, 
and the balance foot brought back close to the skating foot. 

This peculiarly interesting move will be found of great assist- 
ance in the execution of every inside backward edge, either in 
single circles, after a turn, or after a change of edge; it is 
the only case where a straightened position of knee and body 
is allowed. 

THE CHANGE OF EDGE (Nos. 5a and 5$). 

(5a) Forward, Outside to Inside. 

The Serpentine, or Change of Edge, is a half circle on an 

edge of one foot, followed by a full circle on the other edge 

of the same foot. 

This figure is skated in the form of a 

three-lobed paragraph eight. The diagram 

shows the proper form of the figure, with 

B 1 the long and transverse axes bisecting the 

Change of Edge. circles. As the long axis of the figure, a 

line is to be conceived which divides each circle into two equal 

parts (A- A); a tiansverse axis cuts the long axis at right angles 



between two circles (or through the middle circle of the three- 
lobed eight) into two equal parts (B-B). 

The position of the body, balance leg, and skating foot before 
the change is similar in all respects to the outside forward 
plain circle. The diagram shows accurately the correct shoulder 
positions. When approaching the change, ''sink" 
well on the skating knee and move balance foot in 
front, well pointed down; then, at the change back 
and over the line, the body well poised on bent 
skating leg and the arms at the change held as low 
as possible. The balance leg is now thrown well 
back, with opened knees (similar position to the in- 
side forward circle). The balance leg is brought slowly forward 
when about half way through inside forward circle. 

When the balance foot is moving forward gently, the shoulders 
must rotate slowly, so as to be in the long axis at the change 
(see Diagram). To make the change easier to do, move 
balance foot forward and backward as nearly as possible in 
the line of the print, otherwise the serpentine is liable not to 
be a uniform curve. (It is better to rock the body past an 
apparently motionless balance leg than to kick the balance 
foot for power.) 

(5b) Forward, Inside Change to Outside. (The second half of 
the figure.) 

This figure is more difficult to skate properly than the change 
from outside to inside; the trouble is to get full rounded 

Begin as for the inside forward plain circle. The balance 
foot is brought in front before the change and, both before and 
after it, the skating knee is well bent. When on the point of 
taking the outside forward curve, throw the body quickly to 
center, and at the same time bring the balance leg backward 
and well across the print, to help hold out the curve. Keep 
the shoulders flat and straighten up body directly after the 
change, with head erect and facing over employed shoulder in 
the direction of motion, body assuming at once correct position 


for the outside forward plain circle. Now before the middle 
of the outside forward curve, move balance foot slowly in 
front. Before the change the balance foot must be as near as 
possible to the employed foot when you bring it forward, and 
then a little "spread" afterwards, to get more easily into cor- 
rect OF position, and to be able to make the change with 
facility. Care should be taken to rotate the shoulders properly 
in regard to the axis, as in the above described change. 

Backward — Outside Change to Inside (No. 6a). 

(6a) Assume again the correct position for outside backward 
plain circle; move the balance foot backward slowly, following 
closely the line of the curve ; during the change, the balance 
foot passes a little faster forwards and over the print, and 
shoulders rotate at the same time to take up the correct back- 
ward position; the knee of skating foot must be well bent 
before the change. The entire body must be retained in the 
same position for about one-half the inside backward circle, then 
brought slowly into normal position for inside backward plain 

The skater's weight during the change should, as far as pos- 
sible, bear upon the same part of the blade; i. e., about the 
middle. Very often the skater is unsteady and "wobbles" on the 
back part of his skate; the result is the serpentine is angular 
and torn. 

Backward — Inside Change to Outside (No. 6b). 

(6b) Begin as for the IB plain circle; then, before the change, 
the balance foot is moved in back and very near employed. At 
the change, the balance foot is moved quickly forward, follow- 
ing closely the line of the print, and the shoulders at the same 
time are brought into correct position for outside backward. 
Now remain in this position for one-half the circle, looking over 
unemployed shoulder. At the middle of the circle move bal- 
ance foot slowly back and straighten body a little, to add 
momentum. Head should be held erect with chest out and eyes 
looking over unemployed shoulder. During the change, avoid 
tendency to raise the arms too high; keep them low. Move 

Approaching turn ""IF three. 

Approaching turn, LOF three. 

Second curve of ROF three. 


them as in the plain circles before described. Do not neglect 
the proper carriage of the hands. 

Single Threes — Outside Forward and Outside Forward (No. 7). 

The turns must be symetrically placed 
about the axes. Thus in the Three RFO 
TBI—LFO TBI (Fig. 3) the turns must be 
placed exactly on the long axis, thus mak- 
ing the marks of the turns on the ice, or 
" cusps," point towards one another along 
the long axis. The second curve should be 
approximately the same size as the first, in 
order to bring skater nearly to starting point. 

Definition — A "Three" is a turn in the natural direction from 
a forward edge to the other edge on the same foot backward 
or vice versa. 

(7) ROF Three, LOF Three— Start on ROF 

edge and at once begin to rotate the shoulders for 

the turn, all the while preserving a good sharp 

edge. The turn is made with a kind of "snap" 

ROF^Three anc * we ^ on tne forward part of the blade. 

showing swing of Directly after turn, the shoulders and balance 

balance foot. . 

foot are in a somewhat spread-eagled position. 

The body should now be erect, with the arms outstretched a 
little, and held not higher than the waist. 

To hold out the second curve, immediately after the turn, 
crouch or sink well on the skating knee and open out the 
knees and spread-eagle the balance foot, in preparation for the 
following outside forward three. Look toward the print to 

Outside Forward and Inside Backward — ROF Three, LIB Three 
(No. 8a); LOF Three, RIB Three (No. Sb). 

Make the forward three as previously described, but, near 
the end of the IB curve, hold the print out well, and, before 

Approaching turn ROF three or The start, ROF loop or before turn 
start of ROF loop. ROF three. 

Start, ROB loop or ROB three 
before the turn. 

Before ROF loop. 



beginning the IB three on the other foot, look towards the 
forward three turn, so as to place the IB three properly in the 
axis, with both turns directly opposite each other. 

Begin the inside backward on a well-rounded curve. To do 
this, turn the heel of the skating foot well out, so as to begin 
again on a sharp edge with the skating foot, arm well back 
and eyes looking well over skating shoulder; when approach- 
ing the turn, get far upon the heel of skate, so as to make the 
backward "three turn" on the heel. After the turn, drop the 
balance foot behind and across the print. 

Note— There is another method of skating this turn. The 
forward three is made on the front part and the back- 
ward three on the back part of the blade. Salchow says : "The 
balance foot may pass the skating foot before the turn," but 
I find such a movement unnecessary. Keep the head in the same 
direction as long as possible. 

Inside Forward and Outside Backward — RIF Three, LOB 
Three (No. go) ; LIF Three, ROB Three (No. gb). 

Start on right foot, with the shoulders rotating for the 
turn and balance foot held over the print. The pressure of the 
balance foot outwards across the print forces the shoulders to 
make the turn, the unemployed arm following the direction of 
motion. The balance foot swings past with a kind of "snap," to 
hold out the second curve well. The head, held high and fac- 
ing over unemployed shoulder, helps to attain a well-rounded 
curve. v Jv . 

Second Half of Figure — Begin on LOB, with the balance foot 
in front, as in the OB plain circle. As the turn is approached, 
the rotation of the shoulders tends to bring the balance foot 
around, but keep it in front. Now "twist" the shoulders around 
strongly, so that, when ready to make the turn, you are in 
position to glance down at the skating heel while the turn is 
being made. This brings the balance foot naturally around in 
front, in normal position for the finish of an inside forward 



DOUBLE THREES (Nos. 10, n, 12, 13). 

The turns should be placed on each side of, 
and equidistant from, the long axis, and also 
equidistant from, but on the same side of, the 
transverse axis. The three curves forming 
the double three should be of equal length. 

A double three is executed the same as a 
single three, only another turn is made, which 
brings the skater on the starting edge again. 
Start the double threes always upon a good edge, and make 
the first print well rounded. 

Pay special attention to careful placing, with the turns oppo- 
site each other, and figure lying properly in the axis. 

LOOPS (Nos. 14, 15, 16, 17). 

Loops should be placed on the long axis. The loop should 
not be so broad as it is long, for then it resembles a ringlet; 
it should be a pure oval curve without angles. In this figure 

special care should be taken to finish approx- 
imately at the starting point; it is a common 
fault to skate the curve after the loop smaller 
than the curve before. 

In outside loops it is very important that 
outside shoulder and upper body should move 
in the direction of progression and the turn: 
in inside loops, shoulder and balance foot 
play diametrically opposite roles; the balance foot "bears 
against the curve," that is, it is carried outside the print. This 
centrifugal movement of the balance foot presses the skate sharp 
on the edge. The balance foot shoulder gradually presses in the 
direction of progression, and then, at the moment of the turn, 
is quickly drawn back. In order to skate out the second curve 
well, carry the balance foot, after the loop, forward in the 
direction of progress. 

"Loops are fundamental figures that contribute to modern 
skating variety, life, and beauty. In general, for those who 


really practice hard, loops are comparatively easy, but they are 
easily forgotten again; for this reason, therefore, they should 
form a definite part of the daily practice. In loops, it is before 
all else, an art to find the right center of gravity." — Salchow, 

"Bearing against the curve" means bearing against the tend- 
ency of the body on that curve to go in a different direction 
from where it ought to go; it means the use of the balance foot 
as a compensating weight to overcome the centrifugal force 
or centripetal force, so as to straighten the curve; that is, if 
the momentum tends to carry the body away from center, to pull 
it in (as in the second curve of an OF rocker), or if the mo- 
mentum tends to pull the body in towards the center, to carry 
it out (as in the curve after an IF loop or OF three), i. e., on 
outside curves, carry balance foot inside the print; on 
curves, outside the print, so as to counteract the tendency of 
the body to curl in toward the center, and thereby steer the 
curves out into larger circles. 

Outside Forward Loop (No. 14). 

The skating knee is well bent, arms out- 
stretched at the start, and skating shoulder 

pointing down and toward the center of the 

ROF loop, . 

showing swing curve where the loop is to be made. (See 
of balance foot. in ustr ation, Page 51.) 

Immediately after the strike-off, which should be taken gently 
but on a very sharp edge, begin to rotate the shoulders, but 
keep the balance foot behind. When approaching the loop, sink 
well on the skating knee, and keep the balance foot behind dur- 
ing a little more than half the loop. To accomplish this move- 
ment, look around over the skating foot shoulder until you can 
see your free foot behind (the balance foot should work with 
the curve, that is, out and around). When coming out of the 
loop, therefore, let the balance foot swing forward, but close 
to the ice, and as near as possible to the skating foot; then, 
rather quickly, straighten the body and bring employed arm 
close to the body, for during these movements the loop is fin- 
ished and the second big curve begun. 


inside Forivard Loop (No. 15). 

The first curve is made differently from the IF plain circle, 
for the curve is shorter. For the RIF loop, the right shoulder 
should he well forward and leading at the start. Before the 
loop is made, bend the body strongly forward. The skating knee 
should be well bent. The loop is formed by pressing well on 
the heel of the skate. The motion and swing of the arms, and 
especially the quick rotation of shoulders before the loop, bring 
the body round, and the balance leg is held a little high and 
outside the print. The body straightens after the loop, and 
the arms are dropped to the sides, so as to complete a well- 
rounded curve. 

The tendency of the skating foot directly after the loop is 
to curve quickly inwards. To prevent this, throw the balance 
well out ; in other words, stretch out the balance foot across 
the print, but let the body rotation be inwards. 

Outside Backward Loop (No. 16). 

In the ROB loop, start as if to make an OB three very slozvly. 
When executing the loop, you should keep the eye on the heel 
of the skating foot. The important thing is to prevent rotation 
of the body at the start; this means not to begin to rotate the 
body before you are in position to make the loop, as the loops 
must be at the center of each curve, on the axis, and pointing 
toward each other (to complete the loop, crook the employed 
arm around, to help the shoulder rotation). After coming out 
of the loop, keep the head turned over the unemployed shoulder. 

It is important to keep the balance foot well forward (see 
illustration) until the loop is almost completed, then let it pass 
the skating foot as close as possible, and near to the ice, so 
as not to interfere with the correct completion of the curve. 
Forcing the shoulders will cause the balance foot to pass a lit- 
tle outside the print. (See illustration, Page 51.) 

Inside Backward Loop (No. 17). 

On the outside loops it is the movement of the balance foot 
shoulder which produces the twist and the turn; on inside loops, 


it is the pressure of the balance foot. Observe, then, that on 
inside loops the movement of the balance foot shoulder is 
opposite to the direction of motion. 

In the IB loops it is the unemployed leg held outside the 
print which causes the skate to take a very sharp edge; it is this 
pressing on the blade which largely assists in making the loop, 
and not so much the rotation of the shoulders as in OF loops. 

At the strike-off, get on a good inside back edge and look well 
over the skating shoulder. Throw the employed arm and 
shoulder back, stretching arm well out. Hold the balance foot in 
front and as near to the ice as possible. When approaching the 
loop, get well on the front part of the blade and hold the balance 
foot still in front until the middle of the loop, then open out the 
curve by rotating the shoulders briskly and letting the free foot 
stretch well out and across the print, close to the ice. 

General Remarks. 

i — In all loops never make the curve before the loop larger 
than you are able to make the curve after the loop. 

2 — Try to find the exact center of gravity, and do not exert 
much force during the loop. The body does not begin to exert 
its force until after the middle of the loop. 

3 — Make the first curve very round. 

4 — Straighten the body, bring the arms to the sides, and main- 
tain a rigid pose when coming out of the loop ; this will enable 
the skater to complete a full rounded curve. 


A Bracket is a. turn identical as to edge with the three, but 
made with the reverse or unnatural rotation, ROF to RIB, etc. 

Bracket and Three, show- Incorrect form of Bracket, 

ing difference. 

Approaching turn RTF bracket, 
Front View. 

Approaching turn RIF bracket, 
Rear View. 

Approaching turn ROB or 
ROF bracket. 

First curve of RIB bracket. 



To make brackets properly the skater must bear in mind these 
important points : 

The forward bracket turns must be skated on the front part, 
and the backward bracket on the back part of the blade. 

The sharper the edge, the quicker the turn, the better will be 
the print. 

To make a sharp print without a change of edge the body 
must be leaning towards the center, but straightening at the turn 
while the skate still holds the edge. 

If you wish to straighten the curve before turns, spread-eagle 
the legs, but it is a question whether very flat brackets are 

Before turns assume the shoulder position for the turn instead 
of for the curve. The body cannot be too flat to the print. 

In making the turn the motion of the hips is most important; 
in fact, they may be said to move the shoulders, and are as 
important factors in the execution of the turn as the shoulders. 
Endeavor to keep the shoulders under control as much as possi- 
ble (also the movement of the arms) ; the entire figure must be 
executed very rapidly, the shoulders being held flat before the 
turn and in the line of direction after. (See illustration, 
Page 57.) 

Outside Forward Bracket (No. 18a). 

Begin ROF with the employed shoulder leading, the balance 
foot kept behind, and the arms out. Rotate 
the shoulders in the opposite direction slowly 
by keeping the unemployed shoulder back, 
so as to bring the body and legs more or less 
in a spread-eagled position for the turn on a 
sharp edge. (See illustration.) 

Make the turn on the toe of the skate 

by lifting the heel just enough to keep the 

9 * balance foot before the turn crossed over 

behind and crossed over in front of the print after the turn. 

After the turn the balance foot, carried rather high, is held 

across the print in front and over the line, pointing down, and 


held there until the balance is obtained for a normal inside back- 
ward edge, which is finished as in the IB plain circle. 

Before and after the turn the body must be leaning toward 
the center. 

This figure is skated in connection with the left inside back 
bracket and should be so practised. 

Inside Forward Bracket (No. 19a). 

Make the first part of the curve as in the IF plain circle; that 
is, with the balance root behind; next, move the balance foot 
gently forward anc very near the employed foot; meanwhile 
bend well the foot knee; at the same time move the 
balance foot shoulder forward in the direction of motion, that 
it may be held flat with the print at the turn. 

To execute the turn on the front part of the blade, lift the 
balance foot slightly in the direction of progression and "twist" 
the balance foot shoulder in the new skating direction, that is, 
in the direction of the OB edge. Immediately after the turn, 
look well over the unemployed shoulder and drop the balance 
foot across behind the employed foot, throwing it well out and 
back, with opened knees, as in the proper position for OB plain 
circle. In order not to impair the quickness of the turn, do not 
carry the unemployed foot far from the skating foot at the 
moment of the turn. 

Briefly, keep the balance foot in front before the turn, and 
behind after the turn. 

This figure should be skated in connection with the left out- 
side backward brackets, and should be so practised. 

Outside Backward Bracket. 

After the start let the balance leg at once pass the skating 
foot as in the OB circle; at the same time "sink" well on the 
skating knee; now bring the balance leg forward again and 
carry it over the print. Hold it low and flatten the shoulders 
in order to prepare for the turn. The balance foot at the turn 
is held near the employed, and body kept a little in front of 



the skate, to make the turn, which must be made by an instant- 
aneous flip on the heel, more easily. Both these motions force 
the body over onto the IF edge. Looking back quickly at the turn 
will throw the weight of the body in the direction necessary to 
complete the IF properly. 

After the turn the balance foot must be held behind and 
across with the leading arm stretched well out; towards the end 
of the curve the balance foot passes forward, near the em- 
ployed, to complete the IF circle in normal position. 

Briefly, the balance foot should be brought back after start- 
ing, then crossed in front, just before the turn, behind, just after 
the turn and in front again towards the finish of the curve. 

Inside Backward Bracket. 

The balance foot at first is kept in front, and gently passes 
the employed, so as to be behind and outside the print at tl.e 
time when the turn is made. Care must be taken to hold the 
inside edge. The tendency is for the unemployed shoulder, by 
its rotation, to bring the skater onto the OB edge. The turn is 
made on the heel of the skate. After the turn, force the unem- 
ployed shoulder towards the center. This changing of position 
makes it possible for the skater to proceed from backward 
inside to forward outside. 

Briefly, keep the balance foot behind up to the turn and 

crossed over in front after the turn, the same as in forward 



Rockers (No. 20a); Counters (No. 22a). In these figures ther? 
are two transverse axes, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8. The turnb 


Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

Start of ROB loop or before ROB three turn. 
(See pages 52 and 55 regarding glancing down at heel.) 

Before the turn ROF rocker. Before ROB rocker. 



must be placed at the point of intersection of the long with the 
tranverse axes. All three circles of rockers and counters must 
be of equal parts; the fault of most skaters is to make the two 
outer circles much smaller than the center one. The long axis 
must divide the figures in two equal parts, as in the eight, and 
this will be found extremely difficult at first in regard to the. 
two outer circles. 

Definition— A Rocker is a turn in fre same direction as a 
Three, but on the same edge of the skate as before, ROF to ROB 
ROB to ROF. 

The difference between the rocker and the counter is that in 
the rocker the turn is comparatively easy to make but the fol- 
lowing edge difficult to hold (especially for a full circle). In 
the counter the turn is difficult to make and the following edge 
easy to hold. 

The rocker is one of the most difficult of the school figures, 
and generally requires long and continued practice. 

The rocker is made by turning the skating leg in the hip 
joint, while the upper part of the body does not alter its 

In the first curve of the rocker the body is "twisted" forward 
in the skating direction, which makes the skate take a sharp 
edge; therefore pay special attention to the "screwing" around 
of the shoulders and body. 

To do the turn properly, glance down at the moment of the 
turn and see the turn executed. 

Make edges strong and true. Do not use the flat of the 
skate in executing the turn, nor make a change of edge after 
it. Therefore, on outside rockets especially, let the ankle suc- 
cumb to the weight just before the turn and bend a little, but 
from strength under perfect control, not from weakness. 

The balance foot never swings, "jerks," either forward or 
backward, at the turns, but moves carefully and steadily at the 
proper time. 

The whole movement of the figure must be continuous and 
regular; therefore, while practising the figure, think of all the 
various assisting elements necessary. 


Do not make the slightest pause in the turns, but keep up 
the momentum evenly throughout. 

Outside Forward Rocker— ROFRK, LOBRK (No. 20a); 
LQFRK, ROBRK (Xo. 20b). 

Begin on the OF edge and ''twist" the balance foot shoulder 
very much in the skating direction, and at the same time move 
forward balance foot, which passes very near the skating ioot 
before the turn. The turn is made when the balance foot has 
passed the skating foot and is about twelve inches in front of it 
and a little inside the print; at this point the body is even more 
"twisted," so that the edge becomes sharper. Now lilt the 
balance foot shoulder and arm and "twist" them backward in the 
direction of the second curve, flip the turn, and at the same 
time push the employed shoulder and arm forward in the 
direction of motion. At the moment of turning, spread-eagle the 
heel of the skating foot and turn outward the forward part of 
the skate with a sort of "snap," to facilitate your coming on 
to the outside backward curve on a good sharp edge. 

To enable the skater to hold the very difficult OB edge to a 
full circle, the balance foot arm is stretched well out in the 
direction of the new curve, and the skater must look well over 
the unemployed shoulder, holding the head as high as possible, 
so as to secure a well-rounded curve after the turn, and to keep 
up the momentum to the finish of it. 

It is easier to make this figure if the skater remembers to 
make the rocker as if he were merely making a change of edge, 
but flipping a change of direction into the curve instead of a 

Next to the execution of a proper turn, the most difficult 
thing about this figure is to hold out the OB edge to the end. I 
find the best way is to "relax" the muscles, especially of the 
balance leg, and straighten up the body, holding the head high, 
so as to give the skate every chance to "run," while the skater's 
weight is thrown as much as possible in the direction of motion, 
the only thing that will complete the figure in correct shape and 


The Rocker. . 

The Change of Edg^. 

Incorrect shape ot cunre 
after turn. 

Outside Backward Rocker — Second half of the figure (No. 20a). 

Toward the end of the OB half circle, the balance leg drops 
very near the skating foot, and the unemployed shoulder "twists" 
as much as possible backward in the direction of motion. Ihe 
turn to OF is made by a sort of "push" with the shoulders; 
therefore quickly "shoot" the balance foot shoulder far forward 
in the skating direction, and after "twisting" the body so that 
the employed shoulder gradually moves forward, complete the 
turn on the heel of the skate just as the balance foot is brought 
near heel of the employed foot (as in illustration). The skating 
foot should be just under the body at the turn. Directly after 
the turn, look quickly to center (as in the illustration), and stretch 
the balance foot well inside the print behind, as this move will 
help keep up the momentum and enable the skater to complete 
a full rounded circle. Toward the finish of this curve the bal- 
ance foot passes slowly forward, as in a normal OF. 

The turn is made easier if, at the moment of the turn, the 
weight of the body is brought on the backward part of the 

Inside Forward Rocker— RIFRK, LIBRK (No. 210) ; LIFRK, 
RIBRK (No. 21&). 

After the start bring the weight of the body hard on to the 
inside edge; the unemployed shoulder is kept behind, so that the 
skating shoulder and foot press the more strongly on the edge. 

About half way through the first curve the balance leg passes 
very near the skating foot, but the position of the unemployed 
shoulder still tends to hold the body on the inside edge. Just 
before the turn, and to prepare for it, look for an instant well 
backward inside or towards the center, for this movement will 
bring the skater on to a sharper edge, will facilitate making the 
turn, and help to hold the very difficult IB edge after it. 


The turn is made by the "shooting" forward of the skating 
foot, caused by a quick backward movement of the balance foot. 
The skater now "sinks" well on the skating knee, and brings the 
balance foot quickly in front and over the print, in order to 
make it easier to hold the IB edge. The skating shoulder and 
arm are now nearly over the print, and the head faces over 
the skating foot shoulder. The skater holds this forced position 
until he can arrive at the correct balance for the normal IB 

Briefly, the turn is made entirely by the motion of the skating 
foot, which will be assisted by keeping the balance foot in front, 
in direction of motion, and carried behind after the turn has 
been executed. 

Inside Backward Rocker — Second half of figure. 

In this rocker, which is skated in connection with the IF 
rocker, the turn is made in many respects similar; the back 
turns must be made very quickly, and therefore the body at the 
moment of turning should be directly over or ahead of the 
skating foot, otherwise a change of edge will occur directly 
after the turn. 

Soon after the strike-off on to the IB edge the shoulders and 
arms begin to rotate slowly, the employed knee well bent and 
balance foot moving slowly back and near the skating leg, but 
still in front of it and therefore a little behind and carried low 
before the turn. With the body well twisted, to prepare for the 
following curve, the skating foot "shoots" forward, and the 
employed foot drops quickly back simultaneously with the turn, 
which should be made well on the heel of the skate. 
The second curve must begin with a clear print and with- 
out any evidence of a change of edge. The body, with head 
carried erect, bends somewhat forward with the shoulders in 
spread-eagled position, to help the skater hold the IF edge. The 
balance foot is brought slowly forward toward the end of the 
curve, to prepare the skater for the proper position to begin 
again the first part of the figure on the IF edge on the other 



To make the turn more easily," let the weight of the body, 
at the moment of the turn, be brought far backward on the 
blade of the skate. 

Briefly, in the IB rocker the balance foot is held behind the 
body before the turn and carried behind after the turn ; in other 
words, the balance foot will be found to move scarcely at all 
The turn is really executed by a quick twist far back on the 
skating heel. 


Definition— A Counter is identical with the rocker 
in edges, but the body revolution is made in the 
reverse direction, ROF to ROB; ROB to ROF. 
\ Remember that the counters, too, are turned in 
** 5 the hip joint. There are three movements of the 
/ balance foot made, but in such close succession 
that they do not show separately. 
In the rockers, before the turn, the unemployed shoulder 
presses the body in the rotating direction; but in counters it 
rotates backward, and in IF counters it shoots forward. 

Outside Forward Counter— ROFC, LOBC (No. 22 a) ; LOFC, 
ROBC (No. 22b). 

The shoulders are held flat with the direc- 
tion of motion. When skating the ROF 
counter one often makes the mistake of bring- 
ing the left shoulder forward before the turn ; 
this must not be done, because a change of 
edge results. The same rule applies for the 
LOF counter. 
Three movements of the balance foot are essential to the cor- 
rect execution of the forward counter; in approaching the turn, 
move the balance foot in front, then swing it quickly back just 
before the turn, and leave it crossed in front after the turn. 
The turn to a back edge brings the balance foot naturally crossed 
over in front. Now finish the figure as in the OB plain circle 

Movement of bal- 
ance foot 
and shoulders for 
ROF Counter. 



Outside Backward Counter — Second half of figure. 

, Start on a good curve of OB and begin to 

move the unemployed leg a little later than 
for the O.Fcounter. The employed foot must 
For LOB Counter. b e hard on the edge before and after the turn 
and the balance foot must be near the employed before and at the 
turn. (Notice here that the position of the unemployed foot, just 
before the turn, is somewhat similar to that before the OB 
bracket; this will make the correct position at the turn easier 
to remember.) The turn must be made on the heel of the skate, 
the instant the balance foot is passing. After the turn, bend 
the employed knee and look well in the skating direction. 

Inside Forward Counter— RIFC, LIBC (No. 23a) ; LIFC, 
RIBC (No. 23b). 

A vigorous strike-off will aid in executing this figure cor- 
rectly. Soon after the start, bring the unemployed foot gently 
forward and "screw" the shoulders strongly around opposite to 
the direction of the curve; just before the turn, bring the unem- 
ployed foot gradually back, with toe pointed downward, and at 
the turn shoot it very quickly in front again; make the turn on 
the front part of the blade; sink well on the skating knee after 
the turn, and complete the curve as in the IB plain circle. 

Inside Backward Counter — Second half of figure. 

Lunge strongly back in correct position for IB circle. When 

coming to the turn, bend the employed knee and hold the unem- 
ployed foot a little high and behind. Just 
before the turn flatten the body into the 
spread-eagle position and turn the head hard 
over the unemployed shoulder, so as to fall 
easily on to the following curve (and not on to 
the ice); just at the turn bring the balance 
foot close to and behind the employed foot, and 

straighten the skating leg slightly. The unemployed foot is 

held right at the heel of the skate at the turn, which is made 


very quickly on the heel of skate. After the turn the skater 
should be on a sharp curve of IF; now straighten out the curve 
by bending the knee of the employed leg, and slowly straighten 
the body. 


Single-Foot Change of Edge, The Change- The Change- 

Eight. Three. Loop. 

Change of edge one-foot eight: The change of edge 
must be gradual, without any perceptible diminution of the 
radius of the curve before or after the change. The actual 
change from one edge to the other must occur at the point of 
intersection of the axes. In other respects the one-foot eight 
is similar to the curve eight, the two halves being equal in 
size and the long axis dividing it down the center. 

Note — The single-foot eight (No. 24a and b; No. 25a and b) 
is the fundamental element of all the Combinations and Para- 
graph figures, and must be mastered before the skater can hope 
to execute other figures of this division. It is fully described in 
other sections devoted to single-foot figures. The change of 
edge has been described in the chapter on Fundamental figures. 

The Paragraph figures consist of all the elementary figures, 
except the rocker and counter, joined by the change of edge, as 
is clearly shown in the diagram. 

These figures are preparatory to the single-foot figures, and 
upon their mastery entirely depends the success of the skater 
in executing all following figures. Their importance may be 
appreciated when it is stated that only those who can execute 



these figures are qualified to compete in international contests 
as skaters of first rank. 

Of the Figures (Nos. 26a to 33b), the only ones requiring any 
explanation are the Change-Three (Nos. 26a to 27b), and the 
Change-Loop (Nos. 30a to 31b). 


Double-three change 



The Change-Three is very important, as it includes all the pre- 
liminary changes of edge and all the threes. The start is out- 
side to inside on right and left foot, and inside to outside on 
right and left foot; finish with a three. The "take-off" for the 
second half of the figure, whether started on right or left foot, 
is invariably backward. So also the Change-Bracket. 

The Change-Loop is started right and left outside forward; 
right and left outside backward; finish with the loop. This figure 
is skated in the three-lobed diagram, and it will be necessary 
to reduce the size slightly in order to give the loops full size 
and finish. This arrangement contains all the loops and edges. 

General Remarks. 

The combinations of the change of edge with threes, brackets, 
rockers, counters and loops will be found easier by straightening 
the curve before brackets, by spread-eagling the legs, and by 
assuming the shoulder position for the turn instead of for the 
curve; for example, take the right inside forward change of 
edge — after the change from inside to outside, the left shoulder 
is always held back for at least half the circle, as for an initial 
outside forward edge, but if you are going to put in a three 
carry the left shoulder forward immediately after the change to 
prepare for the proper position for the turn, rr\c] rotnte the 


body into the necessary "twisted" position, as for the outsidt 
forward loop. The mistake is often made of keeping the left 
shoulder back when it really should be forward. 


The single-foot figures are fully described in a previous part 
of this chapter. 

Skating to Place. 

While striving to skate to place, do not look down on the 
ice or at the feet, which causes the head to droop forward, gives 
an awkward appearance, and upsets the balance. 

Here are some helps which will be found of considerable 
assistance : 

i — Take some marks at a distance which can be seen without 
looking down, and try to skate your figures between them ; in an 
indoor rink take "bearings" by means of doors, windows, pil- 
lars, etc., and take corresponding marks opposite. 

2 — Lay out your figure so that the first curve is at a certain 
distance from one side; make other curves similar. 

3 — Avoid practising "diagonally" across the rink. 

4 — Select the best ice, preferably where you can see all your 

Hints for Execution of School Figures. 

i. Do not look down at the ice when executing figures, or, if 
compelled to in order to place figures, do so as little as possible. 

2. Try to develop speed, force, control and, above all, assur- 
ance, in the skating of the school figures. Ease in school skat- 
ing is the best possible accomplishment. 

3. In going from one half of a figure to another, maintain 
enough pace and "go" to carry you to the turn with power. 

4. In all double-three paragraphs, skate the turns out round 
and true, with cusps therefore not too deep. 

5. Make edges strong and true. Do not use the flat of the 
skate in executing the rocking turns, and above all do not be sus- 
pected of making a change of edge before ©r after the turns. 


Do not "fall" into the second curve, so that it is held only by 
the crunching of the skating foot. 

6. Come out of all loops on a sure, well rounded print. Let 
the carriage of the head be free and the action easy. Act as if 
unconcerned about seeing the print, but square it symmetrically 
on the axis, so that judges may give you credit for perfect con- 
trol. In skating the loop-change-loop be sure to make the 
loops oval rather than round, and try not to make the change 
of edge forced or angular, but open it out and hold it by a 
powerful swing. 

7. Do not show signs of fatigue when executing the difficult 
figures towards the end of the contest, which may happen to be 
greatly drawn out. Skate with an impression of ease. If the 
skating looks labored it is apt to be adversely criticised. 

8. Do not show a constrained carriage of the head nor a 
noticeable anxiety in the play of the features for, or much con- 
cern about, the success of the figures. Do not hurry. The 
highest art in these figures is to exhibit ease and control; this, 
combined with mastery, skill and assurance, will go a long way 
towards winning the day in a contest. 



Manner of Skating. Grace. Grapevines. Spins. 
Toe and Heel Movements. The Spread- Eagle. 
The Run. Spirals. Jumps. Diagrams of 
Figures. Suggested Programmes. Music. 

Definition — Free skating is the harmonious combination of 
edges, turns, pirouettes, etc., skated in field; it differs from the 
school figures in that the skater has the whole rink at his dis- 
posal instead of a small portion of it. 

This section of skating will bring out the individuality of the 
skater and also exercise his ingenuity in the invention of new 
figures and combinations of figures. 

Whatever size rink may be allotted to the skater, let him cover 
it well with his figures and not allow them to become concentrated 
in one small portion, but, if the rink should happen to be of 
enormous size, it would be wise for the skater to select perhaps 
the center portion and of such a size as he has been accustomed 
to practice upon. 

Refer to the chapter on Pair-Skating, where further advice is 
given as to filling the skating surface with well selected and 
well placed figures. 

Remarks o^ Free Skating. 

The free skating is always done to music, the numbers selected 
being usually a valse or a march, with possibly a mazurka at 
the end, in order to vary the performance. 

In championship contests it consists of five minutes' continuous 
skating. In minor contests or in localities in which the condi- 
tions are not favorable to severe exertion, as, for example, in 
high altitudes like Davos or St. Moritz, or contests for women, 
a shorter time is allotted. It has been found quite impossible, 


on account of the altitude of the Swiss winter resorts, for the 
strongest skater to continue the exertion which a difficult free 
skating requires for a period much in excess of four minutes. 
It may be assumed, therefore, that this part of the programme 
requires much hard training and a great amount of lung power 
to enable the skater to hold out for the time required, to skate 
•he final figures in good form, and to round out his exhibition in 
physical condition satisfactory to the judges. 


It has been truly said that "Grace in movement must always 
depend mainly on the figure and natural aptitude. Everyone 
recognizes grace when they see it, but it is difficult to describe." 
It has also been said by a famous European skating authority 
(Helfrich of Berlin) that "Difficult as real grace is to possess, 
it is equally difficult to avoid false grace, otherwise called 'posing.' 
Grace is a natural product; in posing a voluntary, assumed posi- 
tion is presented. An acquired pose without spontaneous charm 
is always unnatural and ugly, while real grace often compels a 
natural pose, which is then to be considered as naturally belong- 
ing to it." 

As far back as 1863 it was said oy a member of the New York 
Skating Club : "All the intricate figures amount to nothing if 
the position of the body is awkward or ungraceful. The position 
of the head is the most important thing to be observed, as most 
of the direction in figure skating is obtained thereby" 

Suggestions for Free Skating. 

The highest art in free skating is to combine grace with sure- 
ness of movement and difficulty of figure. 

Begin the programme with a difficult figure, such as a jump to 
a spiral position, which will bring the skater into the center of 
the skating area; also introduce one or two others somewhere 
about the middle of the programme, and finish effectively with the 
Jackson Haines spin, outside spread-eagle, or some such spec- 
tacular figure. 


Arrange the programme with regard to harmonious effect and 
variety of figures, but avoid repeating too often figures con- 
sisting of the same kind of movements. Also arrange the figures 
in regard to contrasts, sometimes with a large eight combination, 
and again with dance steps, so as to vary the effect. 

For dance steps, never make more than one round of the same 
kind, adapting the steps carefully to the rhythm of the music. 

During the performance, the various steps should take the 
skater over the entire surface allotted, and figures or moves on 
which special emphasis is to be made, such as spins, jumps, the 
Brillen dance, etc., shuuld be skated as near the center as 

Arrange the programme so that the skater's lung power and 
energy is preserved to the end. To do this, see to it that before 
and after each difficult figure some easy one is interposed, such 
as a grapevine, spiral, dance, etc., which will have the effect of 
a resting figure. 

Leave out all figures which you are not quite sure of doing 
properly, and never be in a hurry. Skate each figure with pre- 
cision, leaving correct tracings on the ice, and skate out each 
figure to the end. 

The following figures come under the head of free skating: 

Change of direction and edge by means of: 

1. Pirouette — on one foot. 

2. Jump — from one foot to the other. 

3. Strokes — that is, a turn on one foot to a curve on the other. 

Of the latter, two are common elements in free skating — for 
example, dance steps. 

Other free skating elements: 

1. Spectacles. 

2. Grapevines. 

3. Spread-eagles. 

4. Special figures. 

The following figures are well adapted for Free Skatmg: 




Definition — Grapevines are movements in which both feet are 
continuously employed on the ice, and where one foot is made 
to go in front or behind the other in combination with threes, 
loops, anvils, counters and toe-circling movements. 

The Serpentine is the basis of grapevine figures. If this figure 
is done putting two feet on the ice it is called the Chain Serpen- 
tine. Now, if the body is given a half turn and a three is put 
in, and the direction of motion changed thereby from forward to 
backward, the result is the simple Grapevine. 

Grapevines are with difficulty learned from diagrams. It is 
better to "see the figure skated." The beginner may be able to 
skate all the movements of which the grapevine is composed, yet 
it may be some time before he may be able to join them together. 
After the ability is acquired of passing one foot in front of the 
other, while at the same time keeping up the momentum, the 
rest is easy. It is also advisable to practice the chain serpentine 
line with feet tracking. 

Remember that in the simple grapevine the skater is always 
facing in the same direction, although there may be momentary 
changes in front, as there is only a half revolution. 

The marks left on the ice by grapevines should be clean and 
show no signs of scratchings. 

The best effect is made by easy and graceful skating without 
(showing) signs of effort. 

The position of the body is most important and the head 
should never be bent forward. The arms must swing easily and 
naturally, following the movements of the body. 

The fundamental vines are the single and double grapevine 
and the "Philadelphia Twist." One or two grapevines should be 
interposed in the Free Skating programme, the more difficult and 
complex looking the better. 


It is generally supposed that grapevines originated in Canada, 
probably in the time of Jackson Haines and the Meagher broth' 


ers, but it is certain that the Philadelphia skaters had a great 
deal to do with their invention and development, as did the Bos- 
ton and proficient skaters of the New York Skating Club, such 
as Cook, Baudoine, Jenkins, etc. Mr. Amos Pinchon of the 
Philadelphia Club brought the first grapevine to New York in 

The "flip of the foot" is characteristic of the Philadelphia 

A Complete List of Grapevines : 

Single grapevine, starting right. 

Single grapevine, starting left. 

Double grapevine with one revolution; one and a 
half revolutions with Cupid's bow. 

Philadelphia twist, single. 

Philadelphia twist, double. 

Philadelphia twist, with pivot circling on toe-point. 

Philadelphia twist, with pivot circling on heel. 

The "scissors." 

Counter vine. 

Rocker vine. 

Spread-eagle vine. 

Anvil vines, single, outside edge. 

Anvil vines, single, inside edge. 

Anvil vines — Backward; outside edge, inside edge. 

Anvil vines — Double; two anvils made simultane- 
ously by each foot. 

Vines with two-foot whirl. 

Vines with cross-foot whirl. 
i The "Rusty Skate" vine (St. Petersburg). 

Other vines — Double grapevine with flip of foot, 
three point; with loop inside; with loop outside; 
with double loop. 

The "Four Point," or Pennsylvania Grapevine. 

Counter anvil vine. 

Inner counter grapevine. 

Outer counter grapevine. 



Change of Direction on Two Feet. 
The Double Grapevine. 

The Simple Grapevine. 
(Called in 1863 ;;New York Club' 

Double Grapevine with "Cupid's 

Double Grapevine with variations. 

The Philadelphia Twist. 

Spread-Eagle Grapevine. 

The Petersburg Grapevine. 

Tne "Rusty Skate" Club Grapevine. 

Mr. Witham says, speaking of grapevines : "Nothing new has 
been added to the list, except the rocker and counter grapevines, 
since 1880" ("Browne's Handbook"). "He did not know Brady, 
Jenkins and Story/' writes Mr. Cook. "The very different things 
that one can do at the same time with one's feet is remarkable, 
and the combinations are very numerous. Dr. Barron used to 
cut one of his initials with one foot and the other initial with 
the other foot at the same time. I began one day with the 
D-vine, and went through the entire alphabet. . . . Our trans- 
atlantic brethren seem to put too little value on the two-foot 
movements. Or is it because the repertoire given is rather 
meagre? As the one-foot figures are akin to melody, so the 
two-foot figures involve counterpoint." 



Single and Double Flat-foot Spins, Cross-foot Spins, Two- 
foot Whirls and Spins on the Toe Point (Pirouettes). 

A — Flat-foot Spins. 

"The Chairman of the Artistic Committee of the New York 
Skating Club, 1863, endeavored to use the term 'spin' in relation 
to what was done on one foot, and 'whirl' in relation to what 
was done on two feet. The skaters did not think of the meaning 
of 'flat-foot spin'; they interpreted it as a ringlet spin which 
required an edge. Take one of your skates and place it flat 
upon a table and, catching it gently by the toe or heel, make 
it revolve upon its center — that would be a flat-foot spin. It 
would not be very showy in a contest, but the performance right 
and left, forward and backward, when one is mounted upon the 
skate, requires very delicate skill and very hard ice." (E. B 

A — How to Skate Flat-foot Spins. 

Start very slowly to secure proper balance and come up to the 
flat of skate, the employed knee bent and arm outstretched 
(evenly). Look round in the direction of motion, holding head 
and shoulders bent slightly forward; lean a trifle on forward 
part of skates, balance foot carried rather near the ice; come out 
of spin easily and without losing balance. When properly done 
no ringlet marks should appear. 

Should be practised starting forward and backward, on right 
and left foot and all edges. 

An effective flat-foot spin as a specialty may be skated by 
starting inside forward; change to OB, and hold unemployed 
foot against calf of skating leg or placed upright on skating foot. 

Double Flat-foot Spins. 

Start on one foot with arms outstretched, palms downward, 
when balance is secured, put down other foot, so as to bring both 
close together by pressing one toe against the other. Turn head 
in direction of motion and bring arms quickly to sides to get 


momentum. When properly done there should be very little 
straying from place, as in the single-foot spin. 

8 — Cross-foot Spins. 

Start as for double flat-foot spin; look in direction of motion; 
bring balance foot across, with toes meeting and knees bent; 
bring arms to side to furnish momentum. 

C — Two-foot Whirls. 

Start on outside forward of one foot, turning by means of a 
three to other edge backward; bring balance foot directly on 
ice about 18 inches from the other foot; arms as before, at first 
outstretched, then brought quickly to sides; come neatly off 
without "wobbling," or finish by remaining on one foot for 
several revolutions, while raising other foot off the ice, usually 
on OB edge. 

Note — All these spins may be finished effectively by raising to 
the point of skate and spinning for several revolutions on it. 

List of Spins — Ways of Skating. 

Single flat-foot, 4 ways; starting R&L forward. 
Single flat-foot, 4 ways ; starting R&L backward. 
Double flat-foot, 2 ways; starting R&L forward. 
Double flat-foot, 2 ways; starting R&L backward. 
Two- foot Whirls or Ringlet spins, 4 ways; R&L forward. 
Two-foot Whirls or Ringlet spins, 4 ways; R&L backward. 

Note — Ringlet spins may also be skated all on one foot, start- 
ing as for single flat-foot spins. 

Combination Spins. 
Two-foot whirl to cross-foot, 2 ways. 
Cross-foot to two-foot whirl, 2 ways. 
Whirl, cross-foot, whirl, 2 ways. 
Cross-foot, whirl, cross-foot, 2 ways. 
Two-foot whirl to double flat-foot spin, ?. ways. 
Double flat-foot to two-foot whirl, 2 ways. 
Ringlet to whirl to cross-foot spin. 
Cross-foot to whirl to ringlet (flat-foot pirouette). 

-V V •»•;,—-- _ -T 

Jackson Haines spin. 

Cross foot spin: to LOB and LOF. 

*2L O* RIB ,. ol^RiS* 

One foot spins 

Cross foot spins. 

Two foot whirls. 


sralding's athletic library. 81 

The Jackson Haines Spin or "Sitzpirouette" (German) ; 
Figure Four Spin (Canadian). 

Begin on an OF three and, with arm outstretched for balance, 
go to OF edge of other foot, but meanwhile get body in more 
and more crouching or bent position. Come to ROF edge of 
employed foot — the forward part — for a few revolutions, to pre- 
vent "running" or straying from place, which is fatal to the 
proper execution of the figure, balance being the important thing 
to consider. Now swing unemployed foot round in front. The 
moment you feel yourself on good balance, catch hold of unem- 
ployed ankle with corresponding hand pressing elbow against 
leg to steady body. With the other hand hold blade of unem- 
ployed skate as per illustration. The head and body should 
now be leaning very much over and near the ice. Draw balance 
foot and arms near the body to increase or keep up the spinning. 
Do not remain at first in this position for more than a few 
revolutions and even after mastery of its more than 12 to 15 
revolutions, otherwise great difficulty will be experienced in 
keeping balance after rising. To finish the figure, let go of bal- 
ance foot and raise body to upright position. 

There are several ways of finishing this figure. One is to 
skate a two-foot whirl; another, on the toe-point of the skating 
foot, and a very difficult way is to sink once more after rising 
and then raise to upright position and finish on the toe (Hugel, 
Vienna). Kachler, winner of world's championship, 1912,, 
skates two in succession, separated by a spectacle move. 

In 1882 Leopold Frey of Vienna, a 
pupil of Haines, used to skate this in 
the following manner : Make an OB 
spread-eagle, plain circle eight OB, then 
to Haines spin. (See Diagram.) v^x*— ^ ^- \ 

Toe and Heel Movements, Pivot Circling, Toe Spins (Pirou- 
ettes), Movements on Both Toes. 

There are twelve cardinal toe-step positions, six on each foot-* 

1 — ROF circling round L toe, crossed in. front. 
2 — ROF circling round /. toe, crossed behind. 

Pivot circle: Front View. 

Pivot circle: Side View. 

Pivot stars. 




3 — RIF circling round L toe, a-stradclle inside. 
4 — RIB circling round L toe, a-straddle inside. 
5 — ROB circling round L toe, crossed in front. 
6 — ROB circling round L toe, crossed behind. 

The term "Pivot Circling'' originated with E. B. Cook (born 
in New York City, 1830. Skated until March 17, 1898), who 
made a great deal in the way of substituting one toe in the 
ice in the place of the other, the succeeding toe taking the place 
of the other by coming exactly into the same spot located by 
the outgoing toe. He made man}'- substitutions of one toe for 
the other in this way, and some very peculiar ones from what he 
called the "Intoto" position. Moreover, besides circling the pivot, 
he made the performing foot skate a succession of linked angles 
round in a ring. Also, taking a pivot, he made the other foot 
go far away on an edge (almost to half length) and make a 
connected set of pivots, forming a star. {Note — This was also 
Jackson Haines' specialty, but he surrounded it with a circle. 
(See Diagram, Page 88.) 

Note — James B. Story (champion, 1879) was also famous for 
skating figures in the "Intoto" position. 

Again, proceeding OB edge of one foot, he told me how 
three successive angles could be made with the other foot — one 
nearby, one at middle distance, one almost at half length. 
(See Diagram, Page 88.) 

He described an interesting pivot movement to me as follows : 

With the L foot as pivot, lean forward until the legs are well 
separated and R foot turned well out. With knee of L leg (rest- 
ing firmly on heel of right) revolve once clockwise, then change 
position and use other toe as pivot, resting knee of R leg on heel 
of L foot. Now revolve once counter-clockwise, the other direc- 
tion. Look out for position of head and arms. This may be 
done very much as a grapevine move by putting chain ser- 
pentines in to weave it together. (See Diagram, Page 86.) 

Pivot Circling should be practised always on alternate feet, as 
there is always a tendency to use a "favorite foot" as the pivot. 
The skater's position is, therefore, always better in that case 


than when he makes use of the other foot. The difference is 
immediately noticeable. It is important to be equally proficient 
in R and L foot, on account of the question of free skating. 
The skater has no time on such occasions to stop and get ready 
for a particular pivot foot. 

In all cases pivot circling should be done with vim and snap, 
and generally make one or more complete revolutions without 

An infinite variety of movements on both toes may be made, 
such as Curtis eights, backward threes, counters, loops, etc., all 
being done with smoothness and regularity in the form of eights, 
forward and backward. 

Combinations may also be made with brackets, anvils, etc. 
Also, the employed foot may be lifted from the ice and put down 
in front of pivoting leg, where before it was behind it, and vice 

Toe Spins or Pirouettes are easiest to make from positions 
where there seems to be a natural tendency to come to the toe of 
skate. Following this idea many interesting pirouettes may be 
made from F or B threes, inside Mohawks, Choctaws, Counters, 
etc. It may be noted here that formerly in the American Cham- 
pionship schedule a start or push-off from the toe of other foot 
was allowed, which tended to steady the balance for the figure. 

The most difficult pirouette is from OF to OF, the trouble 
being to do it neatly and without leaving scratches or prints 
which do not belong there. First, establish a good edge, coming 
to a full stop ; meanwhile hold unemployed behind ; when a good 
balance is obtained rise on the employed toe. Now throw Balance 
foot quickly forward, paying special attention to erect carriage 
of body and turn of head and shoulders, as in figure three turns. 
A good way to practice the balance for this movement is to make 
a few eights with very small anvils at middle of each curve or 
where pirouette is to be made, finally rising to the toe-point. 

This move may also be made from IF to IF } which is easier. 
A pirouette of a revolution and a half, beginning on OF, brings 
the skater on IB edge, also much easier. 

For practice, skate outside and inside pirouettes ; also backward. 


A series of two, three, or more may be done, either forward oi 
backward. Dr. A. G. Keane, winner of many American cham- 
pionships, was famous for doing these moves with great skill 
and precision. 

Pirouettes may also be done on the heel of the skate, but the 
position of the body is liable to be ungraceful (not to be recom- 

The Double Toe or Heel Spin Eight (Grenander) — Heel: 
Begin ROF; at end of circle the left foot is put down close in 
front and across right; the skater leans backward on heel of the 
skate and spins counter-clockwise and the right foot comes away 
on OF edge. (See Page 32.) 

If done on the toes, the right foot completes the second half of 
eight on IF edge. 

An effective toe-spin is made by letting the balance foot touch 
employed leg below the knee. 

Some effective moves — Start IB edge; change to OB edge, 
crossing pivot foot in front; hold for one revolution and con- 
tinue on other foot. 

Start OF edge; put down pivot foot in back or front of 
employed; raise on toe, after one revolution, off on other foot. 
Also IF edge, and OB and IB edges. 

Start OF edge; cross balance foot in front; raise on skating 
toe ; come off on employed IB edge after one revolution. 

Start RIB edge; change to ROB edge; circle round, L toe in 
ice, crossed in back. Stop ; change to R toe in ice by putting L 
toe in behind now on OB edge. 

See Diagrams, Page 82. 


Not every skater will be able to skate the Spread-Eagle at first, 
although some people who are very mediocre skaters are able to 
accomplish it with little difficulty. Even those who find it 
difficult at first, by perseverance, unless there is a pronounced 
bow-legged condition, may master it. 

It should be learned by all means, as it is the best possible 
practice for obtaining an easy and graceful bearing, and is of 


Double toe points; connecting 
LOB to RIF edges. 



invaluable assistance in one way or another for execution not 
only of Mohawks, Choctaws, threes, but also of brackets, rockers, 
counters, etc. 

Head and body in this figure must be held erect and the legs 
to be straight without being bent at the knee. 

The spread-eagle is skated either on the inside or outside edge 
or in a straight line. For some persons, the outside spread-eagle 
is an almost impossible figure, especially to skate it with perfectly 
straight knees. Both legs must be turned directly outward from 
the hips, with heel pointing to heel, and new muscles brought into 
play which are not generally employed. 

As almost everybody is able to skate the inside spread-eagle 
in some way or another, we may only endeavor to give sugges- 
tions for how to skate the outside position. 

The best way is to come to a sharp outside forward edge of 
the leading foot, then put down the other one after it. To do so, 
skate a "once-back," so as to bring the skater on a sharp OF edge 
of leading foot, then put down the other in similar manner; 
straighten knees and body, hold head up and lean well back and 
fold hands across chest; continue, if possible, for an entire 

Another hint is to stand strongly on heels of the skates and, 
with considerable speed, lean as far back as possible. The 
more the ankles are bent back and the faster the move is skated 
the easier the position is held. 

The following practice off the ice is recommended: Stand 
with the back against the wall and move the feet forward 
about a foot or so, still holding the head in same position; sep- 
arate the feet about two feet and straighten the knees as much 
as possible; now, while in this position, expand the chest and 
either hold arms out horizontally or fold them across chest; exer- 
cise the rotary muscles of the hips by bending one knee and 
straightening other, first to one side and then to the other. 
Keep this up day after day until the position has become natural. 
When the skatei tries this move on skates, after a month or so 
of practice as indicated, a great deal of progress will have been 


Inside edge. 
Flat of skate. 
Outside edge. 
Inside to Outside. 


Spread-Eagle changing feet. 

f .. Left To^e 

' tJ'as pivot J 

1 <£**fc^ Revolve 

|^!L ' 1 

\ | ♦RightToe 

\'as pivot./ 
Revolve to 

^ Lef V 

/^UOO ed 9e 


The "Bishop's Eight." 




Note — The writer mastered this figure, which to him was the 
most difficult figure of all, at the age of thirty-nine, showing 
that it is possible to accomplish everything in skating if one has 
the pluck and determination to keep at it. 


One of the most effective means of "getting up pace" in the 
free skating performance is by means of a Run. This does not 
necessarily mean that many steps should be taken, a few quick 
steps are often sufficient. 

The run should be as light, airy and graceful as possible; the 
steps must be made short and quick and always taken from the 
inside and forward part of the blade and under no circumstances 
from the point of the toe. 

During the continuance of the run the body and head should 
be held erect, the legs quite straight, with the knees bending 
slightly outward. 

These steps were invented by Vienna skaters, we believe from 
ideas and suggestions gained from Haines' performance in the 
early days, so that although they may be new to American 
skaters, in reality they have been used extensively in Europe for 
a long time. 

As a rule, excessive running should be avoided as much as 
possible, and speed should rather be gained by some progressive 
steps, as the harmony of a performance may be easily spoiled. 


The spiral affords the greatest test of graceful bearing that a 
skater can be put to. In this figure, an easy and graceful atti- 
tude is all important and difficult of attainment, as it is at first 
very difficult to appear natural and not give an impression of 
"posing." Much strength and power is needed to hold out a 
prolonged position to the end of a large circle. Study correct 
positions for head, body, arms and balance leg. A great deal of 
practice is necessary to enable the skater to fall quickly and 
gracefully into the correct attitude, which must be maintained 

ROF spiral. 


ROB spiral. 

RIB spiral. 



to the end of the curve without showing signs of effort. The 
skater must accustom himself to appear easy and natural in posi- 
tions which are undoubtedly rather strained at first. The only 
thing to do is to practice one or two every time when on the ice, 
but do not undertake to skate them in competitions or exhi- 
bitions until the strained positions have become the natural ones. 
Two or three spirals are often introduced in the free skating 
performance, if for no other reason than for "resting" figures, 
after some complicated or difficult figures done at high speed, 
when the skater finds it needful to recover the breath. While 
this figure affords an excellent means for recovering breath, at 
the same time it is a great strain on the muscles of the leg; 
therefore it is better to skate the second spiral on the other foot. 
The question of conserving strength during the free skating is 
of utmost importance and the programme must be arranged 
accordingly. All figures, spins, jumps, dance-steps, etc., will be 
found to vary much in the amount of energy required by different 
parts of the body, therefore separate the figures which require 
undue strain on the same muscles. 

Spiral Positions. 

The best positions are obtained from : Outside forward edge, 
arms to one side of body. 

Right Inside Forward Edge — (a) Left arm in front; (b) right 
arm in front higher than the other to make artistic effect; (c) 
arms folded across chest. 

The Outside Backward Spiral — The arms may be folded across 
chest or, better yet, outstretched. When in this position, the arm 
over employed leg must be held somewhat higher than other, 
1. e., about on a level with the head. Point the toe of balance 
foot well down and out, conforming in every respect with the 
xules for correct form. Study spiral positions from illustrations. 

We have given some steps, in diagrams, by which spirals may 
be introduced. (See Diagrams, Page 103.) 

A very effective and original move is to go to a one-foot spin 
directly from a spiral; a cross-foot spin likewise may be inter- 




No. 2. No. 3. 

ROF Rocker to ROF Counter to 
ROB Spiral. ROB Spiral. 



Cross Mohawk Jump 


Rocker, Change 

of Edge Spiral. 

No. 4. 
ROF Spectacles to ROF Spiral. 


No. 5. 



No. 6. 

ROF Change of 

Edge to RIF 



No. 7. 

RIF Bracket— ROB 

Bracket to RIF 




Jumps tend to give an impression of agile action to the move- 
ment and are introduced into the free skating by way of variety. 
They take a great deal out of the skater and therefore should 
be carefully placed, so that an easy or "resting" move may be done 
before and after them — the more so since the whole purpose of 
a jump is to add the spectacular element to the programme. An 
easy leap into the air; gracefully done and without particular 
effort, is more to be desired than an ungainly spring, in which 
the skater simply attempts to jump as far as possible, which 
often results in a loss of balance and a sprawling about on the 
ice, when the whole effect is lost. 

Jumps may be made from threes, forward and backward, 
loops, brackets, rockers, and counters, etc., and really should be 
practised equally on right and left foot. 

A jump or leap may be made from one foot to the other or on 
the same foot. 

Mohawks and Choctaws are favorite figures from which jumps 
may be made. 

As a general rule a better effect is made if the skater sinks on 
the "take-off foot" before the jump, and, on landing, also sinks 
once more, as this gives an impression of greater height off the 
ice, when, in reality, the actual leap is less than a foot or so. 

A few famous jumps are the Axel Paulsen jump; from a back- 
ward edge after a three-turn; Spectacle jump (take-off from 
OB edge, crossed in back) ; jump from the toe-point somewhat 
similar to Axel Paulsen jump (to OB edge of other foot) ; the 
Loop Jump, from OB to OB (body describing a loop in the 
air) ; a jump from pivot circle, crossing feet in the air 

Cross Mohawk Jump— From LOF to ROB. For example: 
Crouch before jump and lean forward; on alighting on OB edge 
stretch unemployed leg and throw it well back. Try to alight 
as far as possible on toe of skate, which should point strongly 
downward. On alighting, hold head high and look well over 
balance foot shoulder. Throw arms far out and back, in correct 
position for OB spiral. 



; ; lil! 

(See Figure 6, Page 95.) 

(See Figure 1, Page 95.) 



Lop. VtT B 

Fig. i. 
Jump from IB Edge. 


Fig. 2. 
Method of Practice. 

Fig- 3- 

Famous Axel Paulsen 


Fig. 4- 
Axel Paulsen 
jump followed 
by One-Foot 






Fig. 6. 
Original Pivot Circle Jump, 1907. 

Fig. 5- 
Spectacle or Brillen Jump. 

Fig. 7. 
Various Jumps. 


Fig. 9- 

Jump from 



One of the most important things to remember is to prepare 
the body for the following edge by twisting well into correct 
position before the jump, so that all the skater is obliged to do 
is to leap into the air and alight in correct position. 

Axel Paulsen Jump—LIF-ROF edges to LOF \ jump to ROB. 
Screw well round and obtain a purchase on ice by digging well 
into ice on forward part of skate, jump quickly from LOF-ROB, 
making one and one-half revolutions of body. (See Diagram.) 

The Three Jump — Follow diagram and take off from IB edge. 
The body is well crouched before the spring. Balance foot 
swings low during inside back three, but held a little across 
print in front, and not inside. Care should be taken to jump 
from the IB edge and not from the OF edge. 


Do not let the balance foot swing out wide. On alighting, 
hold head high and look well over balance foot shoulder, with 
leading arm stretched well out backward. Try to hold the curve 
out as much as possible, as the tendency is to curl directly in. 

In the Spectacle Jump be sure to jump from the OB edge and 
alight on IB of other foot, the balance foot, in proper position. 
Assume at once correct position for IB spiral. 

Pivot Circle and Cross-foot Jump — (Original, 1907). 

After a ROF rocker or other figure to bring you on OB 
edge go to pivot circle, with left toe in the ice, right foot cir- 
cling around left on OB edge; change to RIF edge; when 
on good balance, jump and cross feet in the air, thus changing 
positions of feet, but the left foot still acts as pivot and the right 
circles the left on ROB edge. (Illustration, Page 94.) 

Finally, in all jumps the main point to remember is that the 
body must be brought into position before the spring from the 
ice, in order to allow the skater to alight neatly on the other 
foot; the arms should be held as low as possible during the 
leap, and the skater should "sink" well on the skating knee before- 
hand, by which means an appearance of greater height is given 
when the body is off the ice. 

In a double toe-point figure, for example, "once-back" from 
ROF edge, the skater may go to double toe-points from the OB 
edge of left foot to connect with IF edge of right, or from IF 
counter, beginning on right foot, connecting also with RIF edge. 
The body may be straightened with effect on the toe-points, 
which must be made as near together and make as light and 
graceful an appearance as possible. This figure, while ap- 
parently a pirouette figure, can be made as a jump figure if the 
action is very rapid; in this way the skater leaps from the ice 
from the OB edge and hardly touches the two toe-points in 
passing to the IF edge of the other foot. 

This double toe-point method of going from an outside back 
edge to IF edge on the other foot gives a very pleasing effect if 
carefully studied and properly done, and may be introduced 
several ways in a free skating performance. 



General Remarks on Free Skating. 

"The unemployed leg must never be allowed to swing aimlessly 
about and without control. Every muscle must be under full 
control, and every movement have the object either of assisting 
the execution of the figure or of adding grace to the whole 

The head should always be carried erect, and, if the skater is 
on an OF edge, facing well over the employed shoulder. 

In spins or pirouettes, the arms should be held close to the 
body or on the hips; and, to make the finish more effective, the 
figure should be skated out on a curve of backward edge. 

Sometimes it is effective to connect large open figures by a 
few quick inside backstrokes or steps, to give life and variety to 
the movement. (See Diagram, Page 103.) 

For dance steps, skate only a few of the most effective ones, 
and never too many of the same kind. 

Each step must be neatly done and clearly defined, the skating 
foot raised lightly from the ice, and an impression of ease and 
grace given to every movement. These steps should be short 
and quick, the body rising and falling on employed leg in exact 
time with the music. 

The balance leg may also mark time in its swing, as in the 
Brillen dance, as well as the swing of the arms and bend of the 
body. (See Figure 4.) 


Fig. 1. 

Here the balance foot is held 
behind while the skater makes 
the forward turn, then swings 
it in an undulating movement 
from outside to inside the 
print, then it is held behind 
as the employed makes the 
oack counter turn. 

™ Fig ' 3 * 

The Brillen or Spectacle 


Fig. 2. 

Moves from IB 
to OF. 

Fig. 4. 

The Brillen or 

Spectacle Dance. 


In moves from IB to OF (Diagram 2), let the leading arm 
move gracefully forward while the other swings back, maintain- 
ing the body in a graceful curve. Study carefully correct po- 
sition for balance foot and arms, to add to the effect of difficult 
figures. Before every toe-spin or jump, sink well on employed 
knee, so as to rise at the toe-point with body straightened, then 
immediately afterwards sink again ; this will make a telling effect. 
Finally, avoid any appearance of effort in difficult figures. A 
better impression is made if simpler ones are skated with utmost 
confidence and ease. 

To make double-threes effective for exhibition form, put them 
at the end of a move or series of movements, as more or less 
of a finishing touch. It is better to go into them from a back- 
ward outside cross-roll or direct from an inside forward spread- 
eagle (short curve) position direct from the leading foot. There 
should only be one executed at a time, and as quickly as possible. 

Brillen or Spectacle moves, whether done by changing the 
starting foot or continuously on single foot, are very effective 
and should be one of the fundamental figures of every skater's 
programme. In the first place, this move is not difficult to 
master and with very little practice a very good effect may be 
produced; then, again, by the nature of the figure when put 
together with others, this makes an excellent introduction for a 
set of figures. 

An easy way to learn the ROF spectacle move is to take it 
from a RIB three, the second curve of the three serving as the 
first part of the spectacles ; likewise, the same idea applies to 
the backward outside spectacles, or such combinations with the 
change of edge. 

One-Foot Spins after Spirals — After a careful study of the 
question of the best manner of starting and obtaining balance 
for difficult one-foot spins, I unquestionably recommend them to 
be skated after a spiral. The balance and poise of the skater is 
then as near perfect as it is possible to be, and that, too, witnout 
any effort on the part of the skater. Very often I have found 
that, say, after an inside forward spiral, an OB spin on same foot 
may be made without any effort other than the swing of the 



balance foot to bring you on the OB edge for the spin. After 
OB spirals cross-foot spins may be made. The Jackson Haines 
spin may be made after a spiral. It is difficult but very effective. 

For OB toe-spins, throw the balance foot out and back, when 
on the toe-point, and sink on skating foot knee before and after. 
Raise body when coming to the toe-point for effect produced. 
Secure good balance by holding the arms more or less out- 

An effective move is to go direct from the outside spread-eagle 
to a toe-circling movement, one foot circling round pivot foot 
on outside forward edge and knee of pivot leg resting on heel 
of employed. (Described page 83.) 

An Original Central Grapevine Figure — Begin with the scis- 
sors or single vine; go to double toe pirouette; to counter; to 
back three, the balance foot circling round behind the employed 
and receiving the weight. (Page 105.) 

An inside rocker jump, followed by change of edge from 
inside to outside backward. 


An Inside Rocker Jump. A Spiral with OF Rocker Jump. 

A spiral, with OF rocker jump from one foot to the same, 
and spiral position after. 



The skater may begin with some quick steps, starting at the 
opposite end from the spectators, and come to a spiral, including 
perhaps, a jump or an outside spread-eagle; follow this by a 
one-foot spin; then a figure in eight form or one toe-spin 
figure; some dance steps (once round); a figure in eight 
form (in the middle); a 'jump; another large figure or 
a spiral; a Brillen (spectacle) dance, with the swing of the bal- 
ance foot to the music; a grapevine figure; then a march step; 
a long continuous figure, followed by a jump, and another step 
to the music. Finish the performance with a "Haines" pirouette 
or difficult figure or perhaps some steps of the Swedish mazurka. 

An alternative arrangement would be to begin the free skating 
by a run of a few quick steps and follow by a jump, say, from 
LOF to ROB, coming then to a spiral, which should bring the 
skater into the middle of the rink. While there, execute a few 
toe-spins or figures in eight form ; immediately after, let the 
action change from one side of the skating surface to the other 
by means of some long figure well maintained in "swing" and 

This must take the skater rapidly over the ice by means of 
fast steps or long edges. To keep up the action, now let the 
preliminary stroke be preceded by a short "run" or by a stroke 
on the third step. To keep up the effect, let each long figure, or 


series of figures, end with an effective figure, as, for example, a 
toe-spin or pirouette, which will show the spectators that there 
is something to follow. Above all, the skater must time his per- 
formance properly, so as not to leave out his specially good fig- 
ures or moves, and strive his utmost to make an effective finish. 

Free Skating Programmes. 

No. i. 

Music— Two-Step, "Yankee Patrol" 

> Run to jump from LOF to ROB spiral; to backward rocker 
(straight) line; after to IF spiral and three (in center); stand 
on crossed toes (L across R) ; off to — 

LIF three to similar cross-toe stand; 

Once back and spectacles; follow by a spread-eagle to two- foot 

Repeat previous figure, but finish on cross-toe spin. 

Spectacle move (cross in back) ; IF curve, with connecting 

LOF Mohawk, follow by Curtis steps; repeat other way. 

Dance steps. 

Pirouettes — LIF three to cross -toe stand; double-toe pirouette; 
spin from one toe to other and off IB of starting foot; RIB 
three, follow by B loop; pivot circle; spin on pivot foot. 

Dance steps — Once round, ten steps or other dance step. 

Spectacles (cross in front) ; spread-eagle to grapevine, and 

Brillen dance — Swing of balance foot to music. 

IF counter to OB; other foot to toe-points; off IF, and repeat. 
' IF three; to spread-eagle; to OB counter; to single three. 

Combination spin on L foot, two-foot whirl, cross-foot spin. 


"Jackson Haines" spin. 



!o$ LOB Rib 51f 

No. i. 


No. 8. 
The Curtis Step. 

rof f^oe k lob 


No. 3- 
Three Figures from Panin's Book. 

No. 4. < 

Large single Three and Spectacle move. ^Oj 

« UOff LOB 


No. 6. 



No. 7. 
Brillen Jump Figure 

No. 14. 




LOF Counter 
Put down 
right foot 
to help the 
for an instant 

No. 17. 
A Connecting Move 

No. 21. 

No. 22. 
An Opening Figure. 

No. 1 

The balance foot makes a 
loop in the air and comes 
over in front, well pointed 
down, to give a graceful 

The balance foot is held 
forward during the Three, 
out of consideration for the 
following Loop. This figure 
might be done ' with two 
Loops on each end, or with 
toe spins instead of Three 



No. 24. 





No. 28. 
Cross balance foot strong- 
ly in back. Look down at 
your skating foot heel 
when making the Spec- 
tacle turn. 
Put down left foot on <$ 
IF side to make Inside $»/ 
Spread-Eagle. Follow by 
Double Three turn — 
skated fast. 

No. 33. 
The Backward Loop Jump. 
Employed foot makes a 
loop in the air, and comes 
down on same edge as 

Before Jump the balance 
foot is crossed in front. 
The left shoulder is pulled 
sharply back before the 


No. 29. 
Dance Step 

No. 30. 
Counter Figure with Inside 
Spread Eagle or Spiral, 

^ Outside 

iQJ"^ ^>v ^^-<lo Spread 

No. 2 2 - 

Hold balance foot in front during 

the OB Rocker, and then in front 

for the Loop. 

^ Rocker 

No. 35. 
Continue to OB Spi- 
ral or Outside Spread 

No. 36. 

The Jackson Haines 

Spin (Panin). 




£* " l8 W 

** Counter 

No. 38. 
Inside Counter and Toe Point Figure 



No. 41. 

A Dance Step, with swing of 

balance foot to music. 


An original 

Center Figure 

Vine on one 


Glide smoothly to 


Spread Eagle 

•a knees and, 
ao Sink well on ^>w body 

employed knee here 
and look back over 
balance foot shoulder 

No. 49. 

on quick 

double Three 
from IF edge 


No. 2. 
Music — Strauss waits. 

Opening Spiral — Large change of edge, beginning on right 
inside forward edge; to Mohawk; to cross Mohawk jump from 
left outside forward to right outside back edge, then to forward 
spiral, with arms folded, coming to stand at center on crossed 

Inside Forward — Threes to cross toe-points. 

Center Figures — (i) Original toe-spins. (2) Double toe- 
spins. (3) Grapevine; to left outside forward; to "once-back"; 
to double toe-points; to left outside forward circle. (4) Right 
outside forward; to left inside forward edge; to three and pivot 
circle. (5) Left inside forward; right outside forward; toe- 
spin to left outside back; to spin for several revolutions on 
toe-point. (6) Valse step or "once-back" to double toe-spin. 

Spread-eagle on outside back edge; to inside forward; to 
(original cross-foot) jump at center. 

Right outside forward three; to left outside forward; to 
spin on left foot, finishing with several revolutions on the toe- 

Dance steps (to music) — (a) Cross-roll and back specta- 
cles, (b) Ten-step and Haines valse (combination). (c) 
Six-step dance. 

Original figure combination — Valse step, followed by large 
change of edge to spectacles and two-foot whirl; repeat figure 
to cross-foot spin. 

Original combination — Large inside forward three; to back 
spectacle; to three and double ''.Philadelphia Twist." 

Spectacle dance, with swing of balance foot to music. 

Large left inside forward change of edge; to Mohawk, to 
spread-eagle, and jump to pivot circle. 

Long "Brillen" figure, spread-eagie and grapevine, crossing 
balance foot in front ; spectacle figure, crossing balance foot be- 
hind and finishing with jump. 

Valse step or "once-back" to double toe-points (fast). 

Left outside forward three to "Jackson Haines spin" on bent 


Encore — The Swedish mazurka to the music, "La Czarina," 
with original dance combinations and ending with combination 

Music Suitable for Free Skating. 

Waltzes — L'Estudiantina, Fogel Hendler, Dollar Princess, 
Waltz Dream. 

Two-steps — A Frangesa, Yankee Patrol (Dixie and National 

Mazurkas — La Czarina, Jackson Haines Schlitt-Schuh, polka- 
mazurka. Carl Enslem, Leipzig, 1871. 
« Polkas — Russian Polka, Xylophone. Drigo. 



Written for "The Art of Skating" by Mr. Geo. Sanders (an 

American), Most Famous Designer of Special Figures 

in the World, St. Petersburg Amateur 

Skating Club. 

The difficult figures that make intricate patterns on the ice, 
but do not lend themselves to harmonious amalgamation into a 
continuous rhythmic performance in graceful pose and move- 
ment, are reserved for a separate division of the International 
programme — the Special Figures. Here an accurate print is of 
the utmost importance; difficulty and originality count for more 
than good form. 

The origin of the name "Special Figures" is pretty obvious. 
It first came into vogue when, many years ago, an opportunity 
was given to figure skaters to exhibit whatever special degree of 
proficiency they might have attained in movements or drawings 
on the ice. Thus some were past masters in jumping, executing 
pirouettes, spread-eagles, grapevines, and pivot figures — which 
call both feet into play at the same time; marches, valses, wing- 
eights, and combinations of these, and in stepping from one foot 
to the other, executing what is known as Mohawks and Choc- 
taws. Then deftness in cutting various patterns on the ice sur- 
face furnished the basis of another important class of special 
figures. But experience has shown how hopeless it is to seek 
to determine the relative degrees of excellence of a number of 
figures which have no common measure of comparison. Try, 
for instance, to compare a well executed jump with a com- 
plicated cross-cut executed on one foot, and the hopelessness of 
the attempt becomes manifest. 

Free skating includes movements of the first category and 
should consist of figures connected with each other and char- 


acterized by harmony of execution. The second class of figures 
requires ice of a superlative degree of smoothness, and, as it 
also necessitates a halt before each new figure and compels the 
skater to keep his gaze fixed on the ground, the spectacular effect 
is materially impaired. The harmony one postulates in all, 
movements on the ice is often marred in free skating owing 
to the latter conditions. ' 

One feels impelled by this consideration to eliminate such dis- 
cordant figures from the category of free skating, and unite them 
in a class part under the name of Special Figures. A more 
correct designation would, perhaps, be Figure Combinations or 
Figure Designs, i. e., figures consisting of the elementary parts 
of school figures, as well as of various supplementary figures, 
such as beaks, cross-cuts — simple and reversed, and all varia- 
tions of these. 


as)<y)co(D &&00C0 

Ooooroooco &ii£3tO 

Ocor\o cuojcooo i 
oj oo co cd en en 

To the question as to which of the figures ought fitly to be 
comprehended under special figures, the answer is simple. One 
may reasonably hold that foremost among them should be all 
those figure designs which by their nature spoil the harmony of 
free skating. On the other hand, one feels moved to exclude 
all figures which are suitable for free skating and are enumer- 
ated above in the first category. 


It is less easy to come to a decision respecting the figures that 
are executed by both feet at once, such as pivot figures and 
grapevines. And yet, although they, too, may leave very pretty 
patterns on the ice, one cannot compare them, as far as diffi- 
culty of execution goes, for instance, with one-leg figures. The 
experience of recent years has materially contributed to banish 
them from special figure competitions, and latter-day performers 
prefer to confine them to free skating. 

Special figures ought, as far as possible, to be original, the 
creations of the artistic faculty of each individual, and a proof 
of his ability to adapt, combine and harmonize. The elements 
of school figures and various supplementary figures supply the 
materials on which his ingenuity goes to work, out of which 
he produces fresh designs. For this, however, a much fuller 
knowledge of school figures is needed than for skill in free 
skating, for skill in the latter exercise may be readily acquired 
by skaters who have but a scant acquaintance with the school 
figures of to-day. These considerations will doubtless gradu- 
ally overcome the reluctance which the majority of skaters still 
exhibit to admit the special figure designs in competitions 
on the same basis as compulsory and free skating, and, in the 
near future, these figures will probably form an essential part 
of every competition. 

In order further to encourage the invention and execution of 
new figures, a silver challenge shield was presented by N. D. 
Bojarinoff, in 1909, at Wiborg, for competitions from which com- 
pulsory skating of school figures was entirely absent ; the com- 
petition consisting of two parts, viz., Figure Combinations (fig- 
ure designs) and Free Skating. This was won in 1909, at Wiborg, 
by K. Ollow, of St. Petersburg. 

This progressive measure may, perhaps, seem somewhat radi- 
cal, but it can be justified for many reasons. In the near future, 
when first-class performers will be equally good at compulsory 
figure skating — which many of them are even now — fresh meas- 
ures will have to be adopted to regulate it in order to obviate the 
disadvantages that now accrue from the large discretional 


powers invested in the judges, on whom the results of the com- 
petitions at present depend. 

It might be wise to enact that the competitors shall have no 
knowledge beforehand as to which figures will be required for 
the competition in compulsory skating, and that the matter shall 
be settled by drawing lots just before the contest. In such con- 
tests only those skaters could take part who are thoroughly 
conversant with all the school figures. If this rule was rigor- 
ously enforced, one would be spared the spectacle, not infre- 
quent to-day, in which the most difficult figures, representing a 
higher value in factors, are executed better than the easier ones, 
to which a lower range of factors is attached, insufficient atten- 
tion being paid to the latter. If compulsory figures for com- 
petitions were determined in this way, it is evident that a dif- 
ference of standard for estimating the factors to be given for 
compulsory figures would no longer be maintained. 

In order to execute special figure designs, it is imperatively 
necessary to have acquired skill in all the fundamental parts of 
school figures in both directions and on both edges. Moreover, 
one should be able, on the completion of any one part, to go on 
to other parts without change of edge, if possible. But, although 
this is indispensable, it cannot be said to be sufficient. It is 
further necessary that the performer should execute in the above 
manner the following supplementary figures : 


Beaks, Open. Beaks, Closed. Beaks, Cross-cut. 

And all these in the opposite direction: 


Beaks, Open. Beaks, Closed Beaks, Cross-cute 

World's Champion Figure Skater, 1901-05, 1907-11 


XX SI 1 f T 

Spectacles. Reversed Cross-cut, Cross-cut, Cross-cut, 

Spectacles. Straight top. Curved top. Intersected top. 


Reverse Cross-cut. Sanders Reverse Cross-cut. Double Anvils. 

And, further, the above fundamental parts somewhat altered : 

Diamond Cross-cut. Lebedeff Reverse Cross-cut, 


With a little practice, a skater who has mastered the school 
figure methods finds no difficulty in carrying out the above sup- 
plementary figures. But to lay down fixed rules as to how they 
should be executed is almost impossible; the manner of execu- 
tion varying according to the figure which precedes or follows 
the one in question. 

When performing the fundamental parts of school figures in 
special figure designs, there may be deviations from the recog- 
nized theories, which depend upon the grouping of the figures, 
but generally the skater has to keep to the recognized theo- 
retical rules. In some cases, however, the turning of the body 
and shoulders, as well as the movements of the hands and free 
leg, must be more accentuated. 

To skate special figure designs it is necessary to have a good 
grip of the ice and to possess the sense of perfect equilibrium. 
And for the development of this sense those combinations of fig- 
ures are most helpful which allow the performer, while remain- 
ing nearly on the same spot, to move in any direction by swing- 
ing the free leg and turning the shoulders and body. Proficiency 
in this can come only from strenuous practice. For in such 
figures one movement has often to be followed by a reverse 

Winner Olympic Special Figure Contest, London, 1908. 


movement, and this sudden reversal requires great suppleness of 
body and limb. For this reason it calls for and deserves care- 
ful attention. Characteristic of such movements is the Sanders 
figure (see diagram), if it be commenced on the outside back- 
ward edge. This figure may serve as a test and measure of the 
extent to which the sense of equipoise has been attained by the 

The following points must be considered when estimating 
special figure designs in competitions : 

A— Difficulty ; B— Novelty; C— Neatness; D— Execution. 

K^^-^SL:::.,,. ■■■■■;: ;:;-Eir^^ 

HIS FIGURE, 1901. >d>sP 

The degrees of these characteristics are agreed upon for each 
figure by the members of the jury after consultation with each 
other, after which each judge will have the same standard. For 
each figure there shall be three marks, these three marks given 
for distinction in executing the figure. This mark is awarded 
by each of the judges independently. 



The figures for the competition must be submitted by each com- 
petitor several days before the performance takes place. 

Appended are various figure designs which have been executed 
in foreign competitions. 

Figure skating is capable of enormous development, but, in 
order to contribute to the progress which it presupposes, warm 
encouragement should be given to the development of new 
designs, as this is undoubtedly the right manner of ensuring 
progress of figure skating in general. 

JS & ■ & 

Unique Grenander Figure, 




The Perfection of Grace. Old vs. New Style. 
Dancing. European Experts. Costume. 

Woman is truly at her best in the graceful art of skating. The 
critical writers of more than a century, from the observing 
Pepys downwards, have been enthusiastic on this point. And 
never in the history of skating has the art been perfected in 
gracefulness, and therefore in suitability to women, as it is in the 
new skating advocated and explained in this book. 

From the double standpoint of a highly beneficial, physical 
exercise and a most fascinating sport, the modern style of skating 
ought to appeal to every woman. Without great physical 
strength, for artistic skating does not require such strength, the 
practice of figure skating results in correct, graceful carriage, 
supple, rounded muscles, and a general quickening of the entire 
physical organism which is delightful and which leaves no ill 
effects. As a thoroughly good sport, too, figure skating will 
instantly appeal to every woman who tests it for herself, under 
the right conditions and with the right equipment. It has the 
advantage of being a social pastime, in which one has company. 
It is sufficiently difficult to call out resources seldom employed 
in any pastime, while at the same time being sufficiently easy to 
encourage the persistent student. It contains elements of variety 
and intricacy and opportunities for combination which would 
delight the expert at any intricate game such, for example, as 
chess. Figure skating is done not alone with the feet; it is a 
sport which implies the immediate and trained connection between 
the intellect, the will and every muscle of the body. 

Th old style of skating, popular in America up to a few years 
ago, was constrained and confined to the execution of small 



Change of edge IF to OF. 


figures "on the head of a barrel," and in these figures there 
predominated jerky movements and kicks with the unemployed 
foot. While to some extent this pernicious and unattractive style 
was the result of improper appliances for the sport, it was more 
the result of allowing a fine pastime to degenerate through over- 
development of certain movements which a few regarded as 
important. During all these years while a faulty national style 
was being developed, a careful analysis of the skating habits of 
the best experts of Europe would have taught the United States 
in a moment that the style of skating which Jackson Haines, an 
American, introduced into Europe fifty years ago had been better 
developed by the foreigners than it had by Haines's own 

The new and artistic figure skating, which is really the Haines 
style improved by fifty years of European education, contains 
no small, jerky movements whatever. It consists of long, sweep- 
ing, sustained curves and glides, with the body held in perfect 
poise and graceful balance. To see it illustrated by some of the 
modern women skaters, either of Europe or America, is to see 
the finest picture of physical grace so far produced by any sport 
in the world. 

It ought also to be stated that the new skating is peculiarly sus- 
ceptible to use by couples and fours, implying a series of move- 
ments in which many take part, which are an entirely new revela- 
tion of skating to the average American. Pair-skating, as prac- 
tised by the most skillful pair-skaters of Europe and America, 
is a treat to the lover of motion and grace. 

The modern dancing on skates, which has created a great 
furore in all the large cities of both Europe and the United 
States, will instantly appeal to women. With all the steps and 
changes carefully analyzed and drawn in labeled diagrams, it 
is not difficult for the fairly accomplished skater to learn these 
dance figures within a few weeks. The so-called English valse 
has now become one of the great attractions of the ice, while the 
Lancers is skated by an increasing number, and many of the new 
steps are coming rapidly into vogue. One prominent lady 
skater recently said: "The only drawback to skating on the 



Winner World's Championship for 

Ladies, 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911. 


Winner World's Championship for 
Ladies, 191 2. 


ice is that it spoils one for waltzing in a ballroom, for who 
that has once known the gforious whirl on skates under an open 
sky can care to dance on a parquet floor?" 

Women vie with their brothers in the figure skating of Europe 
Up to within a very few years the World's Championships and 
the European Championships were open to both sexes; one of 
the few instances on record where women have been allowed to 
compete with men in a sport on terms of absolute equality. This 
was distinctly a compliment to the ability and the expertness of 
the women skaters of the world. Of recent years, and due 
partly to the fact that there are skating figures peculiarly suited to 
each sex, the competitions have been divided. 

The first competitions for Ladies' Championships occurred at 
Davos, Switzerland, in 1906, and the winner was Mrs. Edgar 
Syers, of London. She was successful in winning the following 
year also, in Vienna. Miss Lilly Kronberger, of Budapest, won 
in 1908, 1909, 1910 and 191 1, and Miss Opika von Meray-Horvath 
won in 1912. 

There have been no important competitions for women in the 
United States thus far, and it would be unfair to attempt to rank 
the considerable number of expert women skaters which the new 
style of skating has developed in this country during the past few 
years. There is every reason to believe, however, that, given the 
stimulus of competitive practice, the right equipment of skates 
and shoes, and reasonable reliability of skating surface, such as 
prevails in much of Europe for months at a time, the American 
women would lead the world in the graceful sport. 

In every important particular the directions for skating found 
in this book apply as much to women as to men. The balances 
are the same, and as the center of gravity in women is slightly 
lower than in men, women ought to achieve the accomplishment 
of the figures as easily as men. It should again be stated that 
skating is by no means a matter of mere strength; it is balance, 
carriage, turning of the body to meet the needs of the new stroke 
or position; it is practice, experience, knack, and the ability to 
comprehend what ought to be done at the time it ought to be 
don^. Let no woman be discouraged at the start. Small girls of 



eleven and twelve after one season's practice are skating many 
of the difficult figures described in this book. One of them, after 
a few season's training, is giving exhibitions that are the delight 
of the theatre-going public. 

The equipment for the sport is of prime importance. The 
round-toe, two-stanchion skate is now used by all the experts of 
the world, and is unquestionably responsible for the ease and 
grace of much of the modern, artistic skating. The correct shoe 
is equally important and should lace firmly over the instep while 
allowing reasonably free play of the toes. In general, the direc- 
tions given for equipment for men apply also to that for women. 

The matter of costume is largely personal, but a few hints may 
be of value. No woman can skate in a hobble skirt, and the new, 
artistic skating, with its free, unconstrained poses, absolutely 
requires freedom of garment. A glance at some of the pictures 
will suggest good costumes. Many experienced women skaters 
regard bloomers or knickerbockers, preferably of satin or silk, 
essential, since such material prevents the skirt from clinging 
and allows freedom of movement. 

On Toe-point Figure, Rink, Davos-Platz. 

In Pair-Skating:, Davos. 

Jaccbsons in combined spiral 
en opposite feet. 

Gentleman on LOF; Lady on ROB. 


Winners Championship I. S. Union, 1909. 1912,, 



Famous European Professionals, 

Giving Exhibition of Figure Skating at St. Nicholas Ice Rink, New York. 



Arm and Hand Positions. Suggestions for Sim- 
ple and Advanced Combinations. Article by 
Herr Burger. Explanation of Burger-Hubler 

Arm and Hand Positions. 

Echelon — Both hands crossed, right to right, behind one 
partner's back; left to left, across front. 

Side by side — Both hands joined, crossed, right to right and 
left to left, across front of both partners. 

Link — Single hands joined, right to left, partners facing the 
same way, and one in advance of the other. 

Swing — The drawing of one partner round the other without 
releasing hands or changing sides. 

Lock pass and reverse — A change of sides by partners, 
effected by one partner passing across the other without release 
of hands. 

Face to face — One hand joined, one partner skating forwards, 
the other backwards, right to right, or left to left; both hands 
joined, one partner skating forwards, the other backwards, right 
to left and left to right; both skating sideways (vis-a-vis) right 
to left and left to right. 

Suggestion for Simple Pair- Skating Figures. 

Hand in hand figures — Promenade steps, plain or by raising 
partner's hands over her head. 

Basket figure — To right and left and with change of edge; 
also with "cut off," or with "Q," or with circles, or with grape- 
vine repeated. 

"Once-back" figure— With hands crossed in back — plain, meet- 


ing backwards; with spread-eagle; with change of edge and 
pirouette, or pivot circle and by passing at center. 

Pirouette figure and Toe Circling — Combined with center cir- 
cling figures. 

Change of Edge — Gentleman's right holds lady's left hand 
across back. 

Change of Edge and Three — Same position. 

Change of Edge and Double-Three — Same position. 

Counter figure — By partners meeting face to face on cor- 
responding feet and separating again while making the turn by 
pushing from each other by the hands. 

Choctaw figure — Plain and with change of edge. 

The "Rose" figure. 

A meeting figure — Partners separate from Mohawk to "once- 
back," change of edge, and meet. 

Center circling — Plain circle and with change of edge forward 
and backward ; : by a three-turn ; partners circle around back' s 
ward, coming in from "once-back" figure. 

This circling may be made either by holding hands or not. Of 
course, the circle is made smaller if hands are grasped. A 
favorite way is each partner to make outer circles and then 
go to the center circle and change outer circles, repeating the 
figure previously done, the gentleman taking lady's circle and 
vice versa. 

Partners join hands for OF Mohawk — Make "cut-off" back- 
ward ; right hand partner is then on three-turn. During the turn 
the hands pass over head of right-hand partner. Now make 
LOF Mohawk to ROB, the "cut-off" on the LOB. Follow by 
ROF Mohawk and repeat. 

Partners join hands in back — Left partner is on LOF 
Mohawk; crosses left foot in back; the right-hand partner is on 
IF three. Repeat to Mohawk towards the right. 

Choctaw figure, starting IF edge, gentleman on right. Follow 
by threes or Mohawks. 

On opposite feet, before separating. On opposite feet, before separating. 

Both on RIF. 


Combination of Mohawks with Single Threes — Make Mohawk 
to left and follow by LOF three, taking it up from the ROB of 
the Mohawk. After the three, make short strokes on RIB to 
straighten out so as to repeat the Mohawk again. This is very 
attractive, by reason of its excellent vigor. This combination 
should take the partners round the entire rink to the left. 

Rockers — Rockers are easily skated, providing the partners 
touch in the slightest degree each other's hands. But the rocker 
turn should be carefully planned beforehand, so that it will not 
get confused with a counter or three. Both partners must turn 
simultaneously in the same rotation. For this reason it is bet- 
ter to skate the figure very slowly for the first few times. 
Another point to remember is that the leading partner, which 
is usually the man, should be always well in advance of the lady, 
whose print should come along almost directly after his. After 
the turn the position of the balance feet of both partners should 
coincide as much as possible, while the bodies are held in sim- 
ilar positions. 

Rockers may be done either hand-in-hand, hands crossed in 
front; man's right arm across lady's back; face to face, as in 
valse position, etc. (See Rocker Valse in Chapter XL, ''Danc- 
ing on Skates.") 

A remarkably effective figure is to make a rocker- jump from 
outside forward edge together, alighting on outside backward 
edge of same foot, assuming a spiral position on landing. 

A Spiral, introducing a Rocker — One partner skates LOF, 
while other ROB, spiral in form or large change of edge. At 
change, partner on LOF skates rocker turn to LOB, one partner 
now on LOB, other on LIB ; or, another way, while partner on 
LOF edge makes rocker turn to ROB, the other partner skates 
backward rocker, i. e., from ROB to ROF. In other words, one 
partner skates a forward rocker, while other skates a backward 
one. Afterwards both will be facing as at beginning. 

Another Spiral — Partners skate a "once-back" ; the leading 
partner is now on ROB, other on LOF ; partners change places 
by a pull past when both are on OB or one on C^and other on OB. 

Gentleman on pivot with right toe; 
swings Lady around on ROF. 

Pivot end of spiral. 


Spread-Eagles — One partner skates outside while other inside 
spread-eagles; a change of edge may also be made; or both 
skate an outside spread-eagle. 

An interesting Counter move — Partners begin by skating side 
by side, hands crossed behind lady's back, lady to be on left 
side. Both partners skate a LIF edge, then a ROF edge; sim- 
ultaneously the partners make an OF counter, moving the bal- 
ance foot as previously described (Chapter VI.) Now, instead 
of holding the OB edge, both partners change at once to IB 
edge, the gentleman pulling the lady across in front past him. 

A move to obtain speed or to join with others — Partners begin 
with hands crossed in front, gentleman's right over left, lady 
on the left side. Both skate RLR; gentleman makes a "once- 
back," beginning LOF, while lady remains always on LOF edge. 
As gentleman comes forward on LOF edge, he pulls lady past 
him under his right arm. A figure to be recommended for large, 
open skating when much speed and action is desired. 

Joining figures — For valse; partners join hands, right to right, 
behind lady's back (Echelon), gentleman on left side. Both 
skate grapevine to left, then to right; gentleman now takes lady 
in valsing position. 

Another way — One partner makes a "once-back," while other 
skates a Mohawk in a circle for a valse. 

Swings (original, 1909) — Gentlemen swings lady to ROB from 
valse step, while gentleman is on LOF; partners now face to face; 
gentleman takes lady's left hand behind her back; lady takes 
gentleman's hand behind his back; lady takes stroke on LOB, 
then comes forward in skating direction on ROF; gentleman 
swings lady by pivot circle, with right as pivot, left foot on OB 
edge, crossed in front; gentleman swings lady over to ten-step 
or valse. Ending, No. 2 — As lady is on ROF after swing, gen- 
tleman, instead of toe-circling, makes a ROF counter move 
across in front.ofher and meets lady in valsing position on ROB , 
while lady comes forward to meet him on LOF. 

Swing and pivot circle (original, 1910) — Gentlemen on right of 
lady, hands crossed in front; gentleman skates a "once-back" 

■'.■ ; ' ' ' : :,'■■■" 



from LOF ; lady makes a three from ROB to RIF and remains 
on this edge while hands gradually unwind over head; gentle- 
man crosses left foot behind right for pivot circle; lady lets go 
left hand, while partners continues revolving; both end on cross- 
foot toe-stand. Ending, No. 2 — Lady may continue circling on 
LOF, while gentleman pivots on right foot behind left on LOF. 


Written for the Author by Heinrich Burger* 
Munich Skating Club. 

Our pair-skating was not originally planned for competitions. 
We used to skate our several dances according to the music 
and, little by little, by the insertion of various single figures, 
developed a programme. The single figures have become more 
and more complicated in construction, and have thereby often 
produced a far different appearance ; the fundamental char- 
acter of the figure, however, has remained the same. 

Our main training place was the artificial ice rink at Munich, 
about 125 feet long by 50 feet wide. It may easily be imagined 
that this surface proved insufficient for any considerable swing. 
It was incumbent upon us to bring the figures within certain 
limits, for the least shifting of the axis made effective execu- 
tion impossible on account of lack of space. This restraint 
taught us, however, to pay more and more attention to the refine- 
ment of the figures, and we became gradually aware that by 
just this means the desired effect could be achieved. 

Being accustomed to a limited space stood us in good stead 
when we came to skate on a great big surface; for here it is 
only too easy to skate yourself completely away, and then the 
ordinarily most pleasing figures are apt to lose their effect. If 
one is accustomed to a small rink, however, it is easier to place 
the figures of your programme exactly in the center of a large 

Note — Fraulein Hubler and Herr Heinrich Burger won the pair-skating 
championship of the I. S. C. in 1908, 1910. 


World's Champions in Pair-Skating, 1908, 191 0. 


The division of figures customary in individual skating is 
insufficient for pair-skating, inasmuch as other points of view 
involved in the system are not there given sufficient considera- 
tion. On this basis I have adopted the following classification: 

I. Long Glides, Spirals, or Changes, With or Without 
Turns (Uebersetzer). 

II. Round Dances. 

III. Similar Symmetrical Figures (in same direction). 

(a) Facing same way. 

(b) Facing opposite ways. 

IV. Corresponding Balancing Figures (in opposite direction). 

(a) On different feet. 
(J?) On the same foot. 

This division is arbitrary, from different points of view. Each 
one of these figure-groups has a special characteristic — in the 
Balance upon Edges (spiral glides) it is the plastic; in the 
dances it is the musical ; in the Similar figures, it is the perfectly 
rhythmical execution ; in the Counter-balancing figures it is the 
ornamental — to which special expression must be given in each 

I. Long Glides, Spirals, or Changes, With or Without Turns 

We may now more precisely describe the several groups. 
There are many long glides and changes, but those suitable for 
pair-skating are few. Through an acquired momentum, gained 
either by a running start or from a figure with vigorous swing, 
the skater gets a certain energy of speed, from which he is able 
to stay in motion for some time without further exercise of 
force. The spiral is an excellent example. It is, so to speak, 
"physical motion in a state of repose." The body glides ahead 
but remains withal reposeful, and the spectator has every op- 
portunity to direct his attention exclusively to the poise of the 
body. The plastic must here be given dominating influence. 


The less the statuesque pose is broken, the more graceful will 
be the effect of the gliding figure. 

In pair-skating, it must be observed, not only each body separ- 
ately, but the two combined, must produce a plastic effect; and 
that's the reason why only a few of the many spirals are avail- 
able for graceful pair-skating. If a change in position must 
take place, it must be either very soft, gradual, dissolving, or 
with dazzling quickness, like lightning, as, for example, a ser- 
pentine spiral, with no noticeable transition from one edge to 
the other, in which the body slowly goes over from outer to an 
inner inclination; or an ordinary rocker, with quick change of 
front and lightning-quick change of direction. On a continu- 
ous forward glide on edge or change, continuous shifting of the 
position of the feet or of the hands quite spoils the beauty of 
the figure. The first requisite of a well-skated spiral, then, is 
correct gliding. The steadier one stands on the middle of the 
skate, the more even the gliding will be. Every change off 
equilibrium produces by an ensuing shift in the plane of the 
skating an imperfect spiral. 

II. Round Dances. 

They remind us in general of the movements of the pair in the 
dances of the ballroom. They are in reality, however, very dif- 
ferent. Some are appropriate for the ice, others are not. We 
should consider it a serious fault if the usual dances were to be 
produced as dances upon the ice. A cakewalk on the toe-points 
is simply "acrobatics" on ice; it bears no relation to artistic 
skating whatsoever. The most beautiful, the most character- 
istic, the real ice valse is, in fact, the English "once-back" with 
its even, cradle-like, rocking motion. 

It would exceed the limits of this chapter to describe even 
the most common of the numberless ice dances. Those men- 
tioned in a following chapter as single dances (see chapter on 
"Dancing on Ice") may all be used in pair-skating, and with 
slight alterations new and beautiful effects may be attained. In- 
dividuality in skating demands at least one dance of originaJ 


composition, which should not be too hard a task for a fairly 
clever pair. 

Round dances are, as the name implies, dances in a circle; yet 
it is not necessary for the pair to remain in one circle. The dis- 
tribution of the dance, in several circles on the ice, is making the 
best use of all the surface. Further, the valse may be reversed, 
skated from right to left and vice versa. It is advisable to 
dance the valse in outer circles together and then to execute the 
same dance or another in the opposite direction as the middle 
part in the center, as indicated in Diagram A. 

III. Similar Symmetrical Figures (in same direction). 

The third of the above named groups is made up of Similar or 
Identical figures skated by each partner, which are executed in 
the same direction, either facing same way, so that partners 
stand side by side, or facing opposite directions, the partners 
stand face to face or back to back. The gentleman holds the 
lady's right with his left *and with his right the lady's left hand 

In these figures harmony in movement and rhythmic execu- 
tion come to the front. It is evident that in the execution of a 
figure side by side the spectator can not fail to discern the unity 
of the movement. It devolves upon the gentleman, therefore, to 
conform in size to the lady's skating, or the movement will 
appear cramped or strained. 

As a simple figure it may not be amiss to mention here the 
Serpentine, ROF—RIF. The gentleman stands at the left of the 
lady and takes with his right hand her left. Both begin on 
ROF. A cardinal point here is the simultaneous forward and 
backward swing of the balance foot at the change of edge. This 
movement, done true to time on curves of equal size, will 
prove one of the most agreeable of the simpler figures. The 
tempo can be taken in the following way: on the first beat the 
foot remains behind, and, exactly at the third beat, it swings back 
again. At the same moment the body swings from the outer to 
the inner edge. (As simple as this may read, it is indeed dif- 

Spiral: Gentleman on LOF, Lady on ROB. 

A separating figure: Gentleman on RO and Lady on LO backward edges. 



ficult of execution ; and a pair of no musical talent will not suc- 
ceed at all). One should not be content with merely getting the 
foot back at the end of the third beat; the intervening time allot- 
ment also should be accurately followed and filled. 

These Similar figures can also be skated by partners facing 
opposite directions. Each movement, which here one partner 
skates forward, the other must do, at the same time, backward. 
As one of the simplest examples, we have the skating of edges 
similar to those shown in the "once-back." These Similar move- 
ments in opposite directions give these figures a special charm 
The successful execution of complicated steps generally comes 
to grief in the too great difficulty of the symmetrical execution. 

IV. Corresponding Balancing Figures (in opposite direction). 

The last group in our division is made up of the Counter- 
balancing figures in opposite directions. They also can be 
skated in two different ways; that is, on the same foot, or on 
different feet. This group presents to us a new feature, to which 
little or no attention has been given, the "ornamental." 

The pair separates into two parts and each part moves by 
itself. By skating the same figures in opposite directions part- 
ners develop a number of surprisingly beautiful double-sided 
ornamental designs, and the peculiar way in which they offset 
each other unconsciously draws the spectators' attention. Every 
ornamental design has its own characteristic method of execu- 
tion, and we recommend first drawing out an ornament on paper 
and then reproducing it upon the ice. A skater who has no 
knack for doing this should reverse proceedings and record 
upon paper every figure he has skated. In doing this he will 
soon discover whether or not the figure is a harmonious orna- 
ment or whether it should be changed. 

Since the pair-skating has been cut in two by this separation 
of the two partners, we must take great pains to see that the 
unity of the whole is not destroyed. As soon as the spectator 
can no longer see both skaters at once, the impression of pair- 
skating wJll be lost on him. The pair must therefore take great 






















A^ A' 

1 -2 Yards •• 

Figure B. 

The Gentleman's Print. 
The Lady's Print. 

Figure C. 


pains in skating apart figures of powerful swing, not to get toe 
far from each other. This can easily be accomplished; how, 
may be seen in the accompanying diagram. The partners stand 
according to the drawing about two yards apart. By a simple 
shifting of the axis the result can often be varied. (See 
Figure B.) 

The figures of this group, which are skated on the same foot 
are often not so artistically decorative as the former, but thej 
have, however, other great advantages. These are the so- 
called center figures which group about a fixed center. The 
accompanying drawing (A) brings out plainly the fundamental 
principle of the' figure. In one part of the figure the pair move 
in the same circle — the middle circle; in the second part each 
partner moves in two outer circles. While skating in the mid- 
dle circle the partners may together assume* formations in any 
positions, from which a separation is easily effected. This join- 
ing and separation of the partners adds great charm to this kind 
of figure. Close watch will have to be bestowed upon the mid- 
dle circle, that this may not become too large; otherwise meet- 
ing will become difficult. The illustration, Page 133, shows 
clearly that the diameter of the circle equals only the stretch of 
the arm — taking into account the inclination of the body. 

These four (or six) groups of figures will probably always 
form the foundation of a programme. With these alone, how- 
ever, we cannot perfect a complete programme. We are still in 
need of some additional elements : a beginning and end, connect- 
ing links, and extra embellishments. 

As the beginning of a modern programme a spiral is used. 
This has certainly some advantages; but it i.s a poor evidence 
of individuality that no one departs from this fashion. 

As a general thing the start can never be beautiful, for it 
always has an element of haste in it. The steps must be taken 
in the quickest time, and absolutely uniform. Further, during 
the skating the lady should keep exactly the same pace as the 
gentleman. Nothing looks uglier than for the gentleman to 
drag his partner behind him. 

Gentleman on LIF\ Lady on RIB. 

Both on ROF; hands overhead to 
cross in front. 

On LOF. 

On RIF. 



Often it will be necessary, by reason of the nature of the 
spiral glide, to cover a big space at the start. It is well to 
make, first of all, a few long strokes, and then to follow them 
up by short and quick steps. 

At the end of a programme either a straight line or a spiral 
is now mostly skated. The performance of either results in a 
more or less beautiful position. This produces an exit similar 
to an exit on the stage. Most skaters, however, leave out of 
sight the fact that there is something very important missing, viz., 
the curtain. On the stage the performer is at the final pose 
withdrawn from view of the public ; upon the ice however, this 
does not occur, and, through this lack, these exits lose their 
effect and therefore cannot be justified. The amateur skater is 
by no means required to make a stage finish. The programme 
must on the face of it, have a visible finish, but to this end 
simpler means will suffice. Every finishing pose challenges 
applause, but this skating to the gallery I believe we should 
leave to professionals. 

A very important element in the unifying of a programme is 
the connecting links which serve to make out of the single figures 
one harmonious whole. A connecting (figure) element must 
separate and join at the same time: separate, in that it should 
show when the first figure ends and the second begins; join, 
insofar that it introduces a harmonious transition from one 
figure to the next. I have no hesitation in saying the connection 
steps are the hardest to acquire in pair-skating; it is much 
easier to invent a beautiful figure than it is to find the right 
transition steps to connect it with the whole. These joining 
steps often cause the failure of a pair-skating performance. 

Generally, to begin with, only single figures and steps are 
practised, and afterwards they are put together, with the con- 
necting steps, to make up the whole programme. When the 
programme is first tried it happens that the separate figures suc- 
ceed, but at the end of each an uncertainty begins, since the 
connecting elements are not sufficiently mastered. For this 
reason, in training, I have always skated each figure with the 



connecting links that precede and follow. These links must 
be short. In a competition the available time is so limited that 
one has only a few seconds for linking together. As an illus- 

Link Step 


Link Step No. II. Link Step No. III. 

tration, let us select a link step : The gentleman skates a ROF 
edge and the lady a LOB edge — the pair in dance position. The 
gentleman makes a figure three on ROF; the lady goes from 
LOB to ROF. It is now perfectly easy for both partners to go 
from this position to LOF \ and then to skate not only Figure 
II, but also a Counter-balancing one (III). 

Another link step : the partners, standing apart, skate side- 
wise toward each other a counter or rocker on opposite feet; 
at the end of the backward curve the gentleman changes over, 
for example, from LOB to ROB, and thus changes his circle; the 
lady changes over from ROB to LOF circle. Thus, in the sim- 
plest way, they secure a dance position from a figure on opposite 
feet (See Fig. V of Programme II.) 


The extra embellishments still remain. They are not abso- 
lutely necessary, but will prove often of great value in securing 
a varied programme. To this category belong all toe-point fig- 
ures, jumps, pivot-circling, etc. Above all, this must be noted: 
leave out any element of which the pair-skaters are not per- 
fectly sure. In the ordinary figures a misstep may occasionally 
be pardonable, but in optional figures one may always say: "If 
you cannot do this sort of figure, be sure to leave it alone." 

Due consideration should be given the fact that pirouettes and 
jumps impair the rhythm. Whoever can succeed in skating this 
kind of figure to the music, however, may rightly claim that his 
pair-skating should score high, on account of the difficulty of it. 

To these must be added the figures in which the gentleman 
and lady individually exhibit movements entirely different, by 
which many pretty effects are produced. The accompanying 
illustration shows a backward circle by the gentleman, the lady 
circling round about him. (Page 133.) 

The composition of a pair-skating programme (in theory, at 
least) can have no special difficulty after this explanation. One 
opening and one finishing figure, two circling dances and, in 
between, one of each group of figures under Sections III. and 
IV. above; these, together, will provide a fairly pretty beginner's 

Before any attempt at combining a programme it is advisable 
by partners to acquire a reliable repertory of figures. The 
art of skating together should be practised steadily on the 
simpler steps and figures at first, for the more difficult they are, 
the less likely they will be to detect the faults that naturally 
will arise. Our school figures, especially the combined ones, 
give ample opportunity. Partners should skate them not only 
side by side, but also face to face and back to back, to attain 
perfectly rhythmic execution. 

After putting a programme together, partners must devote 
their chief attention to the inner structure of the component fig- 
ures. Often the mistake is made of keeping up unchanged a 
figure inadequately developed, and then going immediately over 


to a new figure. In so doing, one may make a great number 
of steps, none of which is of any value. To build up a figure 
artistically right may take years of practice. 

It is very profitable to blend two or more figures together; 
one can thus test accurately what is necessary for such and 
such combinations, what is characteristic of each, and select for 
the combination only the necessary and the characteristic. 

In competitive skating, too, much repetition must be avoided, 
owing to the brevity of the alloted time. But one must not for- 
get that the beauty of a programme is enhanced by judicious repe- 
tition. Frequently a figure produces its full effect only on the 
repetition of it, since the spectator may not have taken it in the 
first time he saw it. 

In rendering a programme we must also endeavor to make use 
of all contributing means outside of skating proper. Here 
music, above all, comes into consideration. Originally music was 
only for the entertainment of spectators, and there are still 
many skaters whose performance has little in common with the 
music. Only those are really able to skate to music who are able 
during their skating to follow the music intelligently, and, even 
in difficult 'figures, to feel the melody and the rhythm. ;•*..,.. 

Most to be recommended for a programme will always be a 
valse, although marches and polkas are also appropriate, since 
they have a more pronounced accentuated rhythm and therefore 
make the rhythm of the skating more marked. The principal 
requirement in skating to music is not only that the feet move 
in the time of the music, but that the whole body in its move- 
ments responds to the music. If, for instance, I skate a ser- 
pentine, not only my feet must swing back and forth, but also my 
body must at the change of edge also be in rhythm. Only by 
observing this carefully shall we attain the absolute uniformity 
which is required in pair-skating, for the music acts very much 
like a teacher, who, beating time, watches over the movements 
of the pair. 

A difficult thing is the fitting of the skating to the idea and 
spirit of the music. This can hardly be adequately described; 
it must be felt. He who regulates his several figures according 


to the varying measures of the music will naturally be most 
nearly perfect in his skating to music. 

Another important point in pair-skating is making use of 
the entire available ice surface. Before all, one should have in 
his mind a main and a transverse axis, in order to reproduce 
accurately the design of the figures. The intersecting point of 
the two imaginary lines forms the central point of the surface; 
this will not always coincide with the real center, for often it 
will be necessary to shift somewhat the axes. 

Before one begins to skate observe carefully the position of 
the judges and spectators. It is by no means a matter of little 
importance whether a figure be closer or farther off in its trac- 
ing to the spectator. Large swing figures must be placed far- 
ther off; small, intricate ones in close proximity. 

From the start, the several figures of a programme should be 
arranged in longitudinal and lateral figures. We generally select 
for the first class the larger; for the second, the small figures; 
for, in most cases, one axis will be smaller than the other. The 
variations in the lay-out of the figures adds to the effectiveness 
of the programme. It must be observed, also, that changing 
sides adds agreeable variety to the skating of a mixed pair. If, 
then, a figure on opposite feet is repeated, the direction should 
also be changed. 

To skate too close to the spectators is certainly a great mis- 
take. Those who stand close are not able to distinguish the 
figure, and those on the opposite side lose sight of it, because 
against the dark mass of the spectators the form of the skaters 
will not loom up so distinctly as on the white ice surface. One 
should therefore strive in skating, whenever possible, to keep 
within a certain range; not to cross beyond it 

There remain still other aids contributory to successful pair- 
ikating. Imperatively necessary is a timely and correct mutual 
understanding; if possible, by a pressure of the hand or by a 
glance. Speaking is not likely to add to the impression of quiet, 
*side from the possibility of catching a wrong word. We are 
well aware that even the safest figure may meet with a mishap, 
and only immediate decision can help out. If a pair really 


skate well, they must be in condition to skate without any previ- 
ous understanding, in which case a hint during the skating must 


System of Marking in Pair- Skating. 

in general, it can be said that the present-day marking of our 
pair-skating is not a bad one. It has never produced a verdict 
contrary to the general impression. And yet it appears that our 
valuations would stand reform. There is fundamentally a need 
of improvement under the essential requirements which we have 
taken as a basis; sufficient recognition has never been given to 
the individual, independent character of our pair-skating. Pair- 
skating has always been taken rather as a subordinate depart- 
ment of individual skating; accordingly there have crept in a 
multitude of special conditions which, practically, have abso- 
lutely nothing to do with pair-skating. 

In a reform of the requirements for competitions in pair- 
skating, pair-skating must be separated, above all, from the rest 
of free-skating. In individual skating the requirements for 
free skating must be brought into accord with those for sothool- 
figure skating; here the comparative relation creates a some- 
what complicated method of valuation. All this is non-existent 
in pair-skating. It is free skating pure and simple. On the 
whole, there are but two methods of valuation : we may call 
one, a judgment from general impression; and the other, a 
judgment based on estimation of details. In the general im- 
pression, the value of the whole performance, which is con- 
sidered on its own merits, is compared with the whole per- 
formance of a rival, and from this the final judgment 
arrived at. 

The points given in the estimation of details do not lay the 
slightest claim to perfection. They are like the marks given to 
free-skating, only here with special reference to the united action 
of the pair. Consequently we have here under consideration: 

A — i, difficulty; 2, variety. 

B — i, harmonious composition ; 2, control ; 3, movement, car- 
riage ; 4, exact working together — Unity. 



°a- .^ 




As skated at World's Cliampionship, Olympic Games, London, 1908. 



Lady makes LOT 

AMohawk at X 
4 J'W . 

9' +Lady repeats 
Mohawk at X 


Finishing Spiral. 


As skated at World's Championship, Olympic Games, London, 1908. 

150 spalding's athletic library. 

Proposed Changes. 
I — Harmonious and ornamental development of programme. 
2 — Combined swing and precision in the performance. 
3 — Beauty of carriage and of movement. 
4 — Musical and rhythmic rendering — execution. 
5 — Difficulty and variety in the figures. 

In No. I, stress would have to be laid specially upon the 
articulation of the programme according to artistic points of 
view, the whole art of the working out of the plan, prints, and 
the tracings on the ice. 

No. 2— No need of further explanation. 

No. 3 — Here the beauty of the body is to be judged as it 
appears in fixed poses as well as in the several movements. 

No. 4 — In the dances represented, the musical rendering is 
paramount to all else; in the other figures, the rhythm; yet, 
even these should be in a certain, though perhaps rather loose, 
harmony with the music. 

No. 5 — Corresponds to the first point in the World's Com- 
petition schedule, only that the difficulty is to be judged from the 
point of view of difficulty of skating in pairs. 

An unfortunate situation in our order of World's Compe- 
titions is the valuation with but six points. An increase in the 
number of points would serve to advantage, and not to any dis- 
advantage. A total number of ioo points, of which twenty 
would rate each of the aforesaid divisions, appears then to me 
most practical. The valuation need not be restricted to whole 
or to half points. The only limitation need be that the value be 
assessed according to the decimal system; in other respects the 
judges may have free choice. In this way the utmost possi- 
bility of differentiation is theoretically attained. 

Of late years it has been customary for a judge in doubt to 
give .two pairs the same mark. This surely is not consistent with 
the office of a judge. 

In individual skating it is quite possible that the addition of 
marks for school and for free-skating happens to show the same 
result. The judge is not to blame for this, for his equal valua- 


tion was quite unintentional ; whereas, in pair-skating, the judge 
may survey the ultimate result in its entirety, and should then 
and there decide which of the pairs is the better one. The rule, 
therefore, should be that a tie valuation cannot stand, and that 
when points are equal it behooves a judge to award the super- 
iority according to his conviction to one pair. Then these 
''accidental results" will soon cease. 

Explanation of Programme II. 
Figure I. (Before Fig. i a dual spiral may be skated; the 
introduction becomes thereby prettier. In competitions it has 
to be left out on account of lack of time). — After a short start 
the partners separate at i ; at 2 change from LOF-ROF, and 
at 3 to LOB. The lady makes the movement opposite corre- 
spondingly. It would be prettier to make a jump at 2 instantly 
to LOB, but this is more difficult. At 4 the partners join and 
finish the spiral as in diagram. 

Explanation: J^ Means right foot. / \ means left foot. 
• O 

Figure II. At 1, corresponding spectacles ; at 2 change to OB ; 
at 3 the balance foot is put down behind for a pivot-circle, the 
other foot drawn up during the circle close by, in order to be 
raised a moment at the end, so as to stand an instant on the 
toe-point of the other (see illustration, Page 133). Then the left 
starts out again on OF; the gentleman commences right, the 
lady left; 4 shows the direction of the following figure. 

Figure III. The gentleman commences LOF ; the lady cor- 
respondingly. The gentleman makes on his left foot the follow- 
ing: serpentine, double-three, loop, and crosses over right 
foot at 3. This, at 2, has been put down behind the left, makes 
a serpentine along with it, and at the first three is taken off the 
ice again. At 3 it makes a pivot circle with LOB. After this 
the Vienna (counter) grapevine follows, which ends with a 
short curve LIB. The lady skates everything opposite accord- 

Figure IV— Start at 1, LOB; at 2, counter-stroke with double 




As skated at World's Championship, Berlin, 19 





Finishing Figure 


As skated at World's Championship, Berlin, iaio. 


toe-point step to RIF (see Free Skating figures) ; at 3, inter- 
mediate steps, so-called (Rink step) ; at 4, prints cross again; at 
5, three and change, putting down right and taking it up again 
and after the change; at 6, cross-roll step in back, curling in at 
finish, 7. The lady skates same figures correspondingly. 

Figure V — Link step ; counter turn, gentleman left, lady right ; 
at 2, gentleman changes from LOB to ROB, lady changes from 
ROB to LOF into valse position. 

Figure VI — Dance steps (for description see chapter on 
"Dancing on Ice"); at 1 to 2, a valse; 2 to 3, another dance 
step; at 3, gentleman jumps lady to LOB to 4; 5, 6 and 7 are 
the repetition of 1, 2, 3 and 4. 

Figure VII — This is called the "moulinet" or whirl figure. 
The better to describe it, the- marks of the lady are indicated by 
dotted lines. At 1, the gentleman makes a curve of LOF ; at 2, 
a two-foot three and change, the partners glide past; 2, 4, and 
5, curves LOF cross-Mohawk, ROB and LOF. At 5, the pair 
are close together, and repeat, changing sides. 

Note — Figure VII is double size in drawing, as Fig. VIII. 

Figure VIII — 1, LOF, same as 5 of preceding diagram ; 2, 
ROF; at 3, toe-point, assisting loop. By a vigorous rotation 
come together at 4 with a curve of LOF. The lady as above, 
in the opposite direction. 

Figure IX — Link figure; in the same circle of the finish of the 
preceding figure, both gentleman and lady change outside for- 
ward to inside forward; then, at 3, a three to OB; the gentleman 
reduces his swing and draws the lady during the curve up to 
himself; the pair put their right feet simultaneously behind the 
left and, at 4, go to the toe-points, gentleman on right side of 
partner. (Similar to previous Figure II.) 

Figure X — Valse step in side-by-side position; skated as a 
figure on same foot. 

The second part of the programme consists of a dual ser- 
pentine spiral (Fig. XI) ; then a larger figure on same foot (see 
Fig. XII); a serpentine valse (Fig. XIII); an opposite corres- 
ponding figure (see Fig. XIV); a final valse (Fig. XV) and an 
exit figure (Fig. XVI) 



The Valse and its Proper Execution. Various 
Dances. Skating the Lancers. Rules for 
Valsing Competitions. Programmes. Music. 

The* Valse will be more effective to raise .the standard of 
proficiency among skaters in general than any other figure; i. e., 
people otherwise unambitious to acquire proficiency will be 
aroused enough by seeing the Valse well performed to practice 
it as an essential to skating. 


The delight to the performers and fascination to the onlookers, 
if nothing more, would seem to mark the proper execution of the 
Valse on skates to music as the poetry of united motion. 

In the words of Byron : 

"Wide and more wide thy witching circle spreads, 
And turns — if nothing else — at least our heads." 

Valsing on skates has nothing in common with its ballroom 
counterpart, except the position of the partners, their simul- 
taneous rotations, and their executions of the figure to valse 
music. The steps are long, even, sustained glides of several 
yards in length, with smooth, circling movements. In its sim- 
plest form the step is nothing more than an ordinary forward 
outside edge on one foot, followed by a three-turn to the back 
inside edge on the same foot, and then a passing, with a gliding 
step — not a drop — to the backward outside edge on the other 
foot. This inside backward edge (tail of the three) is often 
held for a yard or two before gliding to the outside backward 
on the other foot. While tracing this last step — outside back- 
ward—the body should be gradually turning, to allow the 

* For additional information on the Valse see Ernest Law's "Valsing 
on Ice," London, 191 1. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10. 

Fig. 11. 

Fig. 12. 


skater to pass straight on to the outside forward on the orig- 
inal foot, when the figure may he repeated. 

It is obvious, from their relative positions, that when the 
man is moving on forward curves his partner will be moving on 
backward ones, on opposite but reverse feet; when he is on 
backward curves, she will be on forward ones; and, further, 
when he is cutting the three-turn she will be passing from her 
outside backward edge on one foot to her outside forward edge 
on her other foot and vice versa. The three-turn, as described, 
has been confined to the left foot, and brings about a rotation of 
the valsers counter-clockwise. To change or reverse the rota- 
tion, the figure is done similarly on the right foot, i. e., the three- 
turn, which gives the rotation, is now done on the right foot. 
Usually two or three turns are done on the left foot, counter- 
clockwise rotation, to one or two on the right ; the reverse, 
when the rotation is changed back to the first, and so on, effect- 
ing a general progression of the valsers around the skating 

The main effect and charm of the valse depends on the manner 
in which the change of rotation is accomplished. When it is 
desired to make the change, the man, who is usually leading and 
steering, instead of cutting another three, holds his forward 
outside . edge, and then, after having traced thereon a fair 
sized plain curve, rocks over to the forward outside edge on the 
other foot, preparatory to cutting thereon the three-turn before 
explained. While doing this his partner is tracing the cor- 
responding backward outside edges — of course, on opposite feet. 

By most skaters this rotation is effected by means of a sort of 
sudden jerk or heaving over — the man crossing one foot over 
the other, in order to obtain the necessary push to force his part- 
ner round the other way. Good performers also effect the rota- 
tion by crossing the foot, but in such a manner as to disguise 
the movement as much as possible, by just slipping the foot over 
the other in a gliding step. 

Only by observation of the practice of the half dozen best 
lady valsers are we able to recognize the really preferable method 
of doing it, noting, incidentally, that scarcely any good lady 




valser ever makes use of the cross-step backwards to change her 

The lady, instead of passing straight from the backward out- 
side edge on one foot to the same edge on the other foot, 
should glide over, by a gradual change of edge, from the out- 
side to the inside, on the first foot, tracing thereon an inside 
curve, often several yards long, before passing from that foot 
to the outside back on the other. This will enable her partner— 
who at the same time changes from his forward outside to a 
curve on the inside — to skate round her smoothly and easily at 
the proper angle; and their change on rotation will therefore 
be effected by an easy, even, floating swing of the body, delight- 
ful to behold, and still more delightful to experience. 

A further enchantment of the valse is known as the "waves." 
The simple wave consists in a uniform rise from the start of the 
forward outside of the valse figure, during the whole curve, 
up to the three-turn, and an equally even drop after the turn. 
The wavy motion thus resulting is produced by an alternate, 



gradual straightening up and bending down of the knee and 
ankle of the tracing leg. The "back double wave," invented by- 
Miss Harrison, of the Prince's Skating Club, London, England, 
consists of a first wavelet executed during the change of edge, 
which effects the rotation — in this instance the lady's left back 
outside to inside edge — and of a second wavelet executed 
towards the end of the inside edge. 

If, after only one three-turn has been cut in either direction 
by each partner, involving one complete revolution of the pair, 
the rotation is alternated at once, then the long, intermediate 
changing strokes, whereon the lady travels backward in a 
single, succeeded by a double, wave, will occur so frequently as 
to occupy exactly half the whole musical time of the valse, and 
thereby, in the view of some, affording the most delightful way 
of skating the valse figure. 

For practice, to acquire the valse steps, nothing can be better 
than doing the figure alone in an eight to a center — the rotation 
being changed by the lady on her backward edge and by the 
gentleman on his forward edge at the center of the eight. For 
a full diagram showing the relative positions of the tracing feet 
at any particular moment in the figure see Diagram: 

^o e 

Fig. i. 
The Lady's Steps. 

Fig. 2. 
The Gentleman's Steps. 
Practice in the form of an "Eight." 

k UOB 


Fig. 3. 

The Overlapping Steps 

of the Pair. 


The mode of starting the valse figure should not be haphazai a, 
but with definite movements in concert and in step. Nor should 
it be brought to an end abruptly. One way is for the man, just 
before the last bar or two of the music, to release his partner's 
waist, and then going forwards on his left and she backwards 
on her right, just with the final notes, swing or float her off on 
a long, sweeping back spiral. 

Notes on Form. 
Head erect, body upright and flexible. Each partner should 
be opposite and square to the other, and there should be no 
turning of the head to look round before cutting the three-turn. 
The curve should be skated with firmness and precision, and, 
as a general rule, held for something like a fourth or a third 
of a circle both before and after the turn is cut. The pair skat- 
ing together — the lady taking the man's part and the man the 
lady's part — is an excellent aid to proficiency. 


Except in making the forward three-turn, the lady shonld be 
on the backward edges, for the reason that as her partner must 
take the leading or guiding part, he must of necessity be free to 
look in the direction of motion. 

As the movements must be as supple and smooth as possible, 
all signs of effort should be concealed, ease and grace being 
the most essential characteristics of the movement. 

Unity of movement may perhaps be said to come next in 
importance to ease and grace ; this can only be attained by the 
motions of the gentleman's arms and legs acting in harmony 
with those of the lady. 

The valsing couple should pay special attention to the sup- 
pleness of the tracing or employed leg, which should never be 
held straight or rigid, but should be bent easily before and 
after each turn; it should be slowly straightened at the begin- 
ning of every edge to give proper graceful and easy effect. 

During the change from one foot to the other, on the back 
edges, the lady's tracing foot should make a slight change of 



edge, so that at this point a kind of undulatory effect can be 
given to the figure. 

To make the change from inside backward on one foot to out- 
side backward on the other absolutely imperceptible, one foot 
should be placed on the ice as near as possible to the other dur- 
ing the performance of the three-turns. 

It is imperative to skate in perfect rhythm or time to the music, 
which must be fast enough to enable the valsers to give plenty 
of action to the dance. 

All edges should show similarity of curve; therefore, the 
edges should be nearly equal in length. 

To skate the valse in "eight" form (an almost necessary test 
in International and other contests), the partners must keep turn- 
ing smoothly during the change in the center and carefully a ?oid 
the tendency to long, straight edges. 

To avoid irregularity of movement the strike-off must be 

The Bohatsch March or Ten- Step. 

The positions of the partners is the same as for the ordinary 
valse, but the steps are somewhat different, as shown in Dia- 
gram : Crossed in x J> J^ ^Cro ssed 
front <A>-*i |p , A ^-^to^f feU?i" d 

***** *&*s, 

R 2%£^ The 3rd and 10th steps are long, 

the 2d, 5th, 7th and oth very short. 
The Lady's Steps. The Gentleman's Steps. 

The feet must be "slipped" along and lifted but slightly from 
the ice, as the tendency is to lift the feet somewhat too much, 
which is not correct. For most of the steps special attention 
must be paid to the movements of the ankles, so as barely to lift 
the toe of the skate from the ice, in order to give to the whole 
dance a graceful, gliding effect, with plenty of action and undul- 
atory movement. The same steps may be so adapted that a 
charming valse may be skated by careful attention to the rhythm 
of the music. 


spalding's athletic library. 163 

The Fourteen-Step. 

A very recent and beautiful variation of the "Ten-Step" is 
known as the "Fourteen-Step" (originated in Berlin). 

Start as for the "Ten-Step." The gentleman, instead of skat- 
ing the fourth step described in the "Ten-Step," on the right 
inside forward edge, should make that step on the right out- 
side forward, while his partner, to match this, changes stroke, 
makes her fourth step on the left outside backward edge. This 
fourth step should be made with considerable vigor, and should 
consist of a well-rounded curve. The completion of the figure 
is made by adding the entire "Ten-Step" as described. This is 
one of the most effective dances on skates. 

The Jackson Haines Valse. 

In this valse at intervals both feet remain on the ice at the 
same time. The diagram must be closely followed, and shows 
the steps as follows : First, RIF ; second LIF glides in front of 
right; third, an IB counter on the right foot, and, fourth, the 
left foot makes an IF three-turn. Between the counter on the 
right foot and the IF three-turn on the left, the feet are moment- 
arily in a spread-eagled position, which is a characteristic fea- 
ture of this dance and distinguishes it from any other valse. 

An interesting combination valse, containing figures of both 
the "Ten-Step" and the "Jackson Haines" valses, may be made 
by introducing preliminary steps of the "Ten-Step" and adding 
to them the peculiar steps characteristic of the "Jackson Haines" 
valse. These combinations are very effective skated without a 


V> uob(^ oF [ ro * 

The Jackson ^°yj?> ^ #r * 

Haines Valse. wj The Mohawk Valse. 

The Rocker Valse. 

164 sralding's athletic library. 

The Rocker Valse. 

The partners in regular valsing position, lady on LOB edge 
and gentleman on ROF edge. On the third stroke, which is, 
of course, similar to starting position, gentleman skates a ROF 
rocker, while at the same time his partner skates a LOB rocker, 
following which both partners skate the regular valse steps until 
in position to repeat the rocker turns again. This is not only 
a very unusual and interesting valse, but it has the added attrac- 
tion of furnishing excellent practice for the difficult rockers, 
both forward and backward, with the aid of a partner. Dia- 
gram shown on preceding page. 

The Mohawk. 
(Known on the Continent as " Amerikaner Valse") 

Here one partner skates a forward Mohawk, while the other 
executes a backward one, the partners facing each other, or side 
by side. The movement takes the pair around the rink in a 
circle, or, by a change of edge, it is possible to skate it in eight 

This figure is especially adapted to exhibitions, since a very 
showy jump can be introduced. (Diagram, Page 163). 

The "Q" Valse. 

At the start the lady is on the left hand side of her partner; 
then hands are crossed, gentleman's left over lady's right. On 
the third stroke to the right the lady skates a right outside 
forward "Q" by skating behind her partner, in doing which she 
passes under the gentleman's left arm. After this move the lady 
is on the right side of her partner. She now skates a LOF 
three-turn, to bring her across in front of her partner and into 
the position of starting again. The figure is then repeated. This 
dance is not generally known, but makes a picturesque and 
graceful figure. It should be skated with precision and plenty of 
action, and as an exhibition figure is highly commended. 



Legs crossed 

as in 


R. Toe 

as in 

o«f / W V LOB 

V \<W UTo .*t behind 


An Original Dance, to be skated 


The Swedish Mazurka. 

The Swedish Mazurka 
* (Music: La Czarine). 

This dance should be preceded by three preliminary steps: 
First, to the right and then to the left, as in the diagram. If 
the general rotation is to be toward the right, begin on the 
right foot and, counting time to the music for each stroke, step 
lightly with the left foot crossed behind to a short stroke of 
LIF J and then, on the next beat of the music, to a short step 
on the RIB; now, for the fourth step, put down the left foot on 
the OB; then, on the counts 5 and 6, jump from the RIB to 
the left toe-point crossed behind. 

Each step of the dance should be raised lightly from the ice. 
This spirited dance makes a brilliant finish to a free skating 
performance or as an encore to an exhibition. 

Two Styles of Valsing in Rinks — The Serpentine and 

Circular Valse. 

"There are two styles of valsing on skates, called the Ser- 
pentine and the Circular Valse. There is no difference in the 
step, but the course followed by the skaters is quite different. 

In the Circular Valse, the couples revolve round circles which 
take up nearly the full width of the rink, all making their turns 
together in time to the music. 

In the Serpentine Valse the skaters follow waving lines along 
each side of the rink, with a wide curve at each end, the skaters 
advancing to and receding from the center line, and continu- 



ally reversing their direction of turning as they get on to the 
different curves. Having only half the width of the rink avail- 
able for their strokes, these are necessarily curtailed, and, as a 

Serpentine. Circular. 

Direction of Skaters: 
Counter-Clockwise. Clockwise. 

D. — Danger Zones. S. — Safety Zones. 

No Safety Zones. No Danger Zones. 

Serpentine. Circular. 

Direction of Skaters: 

Counter-Clockwise. Clockwise. 

D. — Danger Zones. S. — Safety Zones. 

No Safety Zones. No Danger Zones 

rule, it is impossible to take more than two consecutive strokes 
in one direction (except at the ends of the rinks), for it is not 
safe to cross the center line as the couples on the other side are 
progressing in the opposite direction, and a collision would be 

Besides the danger of running into those on the other side, 
there is always a chance of two couples meeting on the same 
side, one moving towards the center line and one returning to 
the side of the rink. The result is that, except in rare instances 
where the skaters are unusually expert, the time, which is the 
essence of dancing, is sacrificed, and the strokes are made of 
uneven length. 

In the Circular Valse, on the other hand, there is practically 
no danger from collision, for when two couples do come together 
the result is harmless, as they are both traveling in the same 

There is no necessity of keeping to any particular ring, though 
most people prefer valsing on ROF and LOB, but the couples 


can sway easily from one circle to another, making as many cir- 
cuits as they like, and then passing on to the next with long, 
graceful strokes, omitting the turn. 

The couples can also skate into the center of a ring and rest 
in a position of safety, which is of great advantage, instead of 
having to leave the ice for that purpose. 

Skaters who are accustomed to the Serpentine Valse, or who 
have never followed any particular system of valsing, will find 
no difficulty in the Circular Valse, for, of the two styles, the 
Serpentine is far harder to skate than the Circular Valse, and 
anyone proficient in the former will find the latter much easier 
by comparison. 

A glance at the two diagrams will show how, in the Circular 
Valse the length of the strokes, and consequently the speed of 
the skaters, is limited only by their powers, while in the Ser- 
pentine Valse it is impossible to get up really good pace and 
keep time to the music, except perhaps at the two ends of the 

The reader will notice that in a short rink there will be only 
three rings in the Circular Valse, the center one counter-clockwise 
(or reverse) and the two outer ones clockwise (or to the 

The Circular Valse is very strongly advocated here, and it is 
hoped that this method will be pretty generally taken up. The 
two styles cannot, of course, be skated together in one rink, it 
must be one or the other, but it is possible to combine one 
circle at each end of a rink with the Serpentine style." 

Skating the Lancers. 

The best method of skating the Lancers is found in the 
little book, "Dancing on Skates," by Colonel H. V. Kent, R. E., 
whose plea for the Circular Valse I heartily endorse. 

The chief points to remember in skating the Lancers are : 
First, to keep time; that is, for those who are skating to take 
their first strokes and make their turns exactly together; and, 
second, to keep line; that is, when two or four skaters are 


skating side by side, they should keep their dressing. The 
appearance of a figure, where each skater may be skating per- 
fectly himself, is quite spoiled if the skaters do not make thei** 
turns together, and if one gets ahead of another when they 
ought to keep in line. 

The word "Ransom" is used throughout for the movement 
known in English figure skating as "once-back," and it will be 
seen that it is very often followed by a short stroke on the 
inside back, to enable the skater to start a fresh stroke on the 
other foot. 

The original positions of the skaters in the diagrams are de- 
noted by the capital letters N, S, E, and W (gentlemen), and 
N', S', E', and W (ladies). Subsequent positions are denoted 
by the same letters, but not in capitals. N and S are "tops" and 
"bottoms," and E and W "sides." The word "home" is used 
to denote the original position of any skater. 

The description is given for a single set of eight skaters, but 
there is little difficulty in arranging the figures for eight couples, 
and the effect is naturally much greater. 

The positions of the skaters at the start of each figure are 
the same as in ordinary Floor Lancers, the vis-a-vis couples 
being about twenty feet apart. 

Note — The Lancers can be skated by beginners entirely on 
plain forward strokes, but the effect is nothing like as fine. It 
is merely necessary to substitute a plain OF for the Ransom. 

First Figure — Part I. 

After bowing to partners, the top lady (N') and the bottom 
gentleman (S) turn half left and strike off on ROF ; after half 
a circle they change to LOF \ and ransom round each other, con- 
tinuing on the ROB till three-quarters round the circle, when 
the LIB is put down for a short distance and the body turned 
to the right ; at this moment their partners, who have been at 
rest, turn half left and partners ransom round each other from 
ROF, halting on the home line, about ten feet apart. 


First Figure — Fart II. (First Half.) 

Top and bottom couples "cross over"; partners half turn 
towards each other, and each starts off, gentlemen on LOF, 
ladies on ROF. After half a circle, a stroke is made on the other 
foot for another half circle, during which the couples pass 
through each other, ladies inside. 

On the third stroke, N and S on LOF, N' and S' on ROF, all 
ransom after quarter circles (i. e., when the partners come 
together) and continue on the OB till three-quarters circle is 
skated, when the IB of the other foot is put down for a short 
distance and the skaters start back, N and S on ROF, N' and S' 
on LOF. 

First Figure — Part II. (Second Half.) 

After half a circle a stroke is made on the other foot, the 
couples passing through each other again, ladies still inside, 
and, after half a circle, all ransom outwards from the other 
foot on a large circle, to take them towards the position of the 
"sides." As they get to the side line they make a second ransom 
off the same foot and at the same moment the "sides" ransom 
round them off their outer feet, i. e., E and W from LOF ami 
E' and W from ROF. 

All come to rest at "home" on the OB. 

The figure is then skated by a vis-a-vis couple of the "sides," 
E' and W, then by N' and S, and lastly by W and E. 

Second Figure — Part I. (First Half.) 

N and S advance hand in hand with their partners ROF and 
LOF, and leave them back in the center, retiring to their orig- 
inal positions facing their partners. 

All four turn half right and start on LOF, ransoming when 
a quarter circle is skated. N and S make wide circles that inter- 
sect, and curve in the tail of the OB stroke till they pass each 
other close in the center; N' and S' complete the OB at their 
home positions- 



Figure No. i. Part I. 

N' skates exactly the same as S, 

and N as S'. 


First Figure. Part II. 

First Half. 

N and N' skate the same as 5 and S'. 


Second Half. 
W and £' skate the same as E and W. 

Second Figure. Part I. 

First Half. Second Half. 

AT and N' skate the same as 5" and S'. 

Second Figure. Part II. 

All skate together. 

N same as E' ', N' same as W , E same 

as S', W same as S. 

Third Figure. 
Part I. Part II. 

Ladies in the center. 

All skate. Ladies same as 5'; 
Gentlemen same as S. 

s s 

Fourth Figure. Visiting. 
Part I. First time. 
Getting into position. 



S S' 


Part I. Second time. 





Fourth Figure. 
Part II. First half. First time. 

Part II. First half. Second time. 
All skate the same strokes. 

First Time.— Full Circle— ROF. V A 
Circle— LOF. Full Circle— R. Ran- 
som, Short RIB. 

Second Time. — Full Circle — LOF. 
V A Circle— ROF. Full Circle— L. 
Ransom, Short LIB. 

Fourth Figure. 
Part II. Second Half. First Time. 


/L «?£,* of / v o* 


Part II. Second Half. Second Time. 
All skate the same stroke. 

First Time.— ^ Circle— LOF. Full 

Circle — ROF. L. Ransom to Home. 

Second Time. — Y A Circle — ROF. 

Full Circle — LOF. R. Ransom to 


Fifth Figure. Grand Chain. 

All skate. Ladies as S'; Gentlemen 

as .S. 




s ' Fifth Figure.!- ^ 

Part II. (i.) Part II. (ii.) 

Getting into position. 

All skate. Ladies as JV'; Gentlemen 

as N. 

Full First Circle— Ladies ROF; 

Gentlemen LOF. 
Y A Second Circle — Ladies LO*F; 

Gentlemen ROF. 
Ransoms Outwards — Ladies R; 
Gentlemen L. 
Wheel outwards in files. 

Fifth Figure. Part II. (iii.) 

Partners join hands on wheeling 

and skate to Home. 



Second Figure — Part I. (Second Half.) 

All four now put down the LIB for a short distance and 
again ransom round each other from ROF, the ladies' circles this 
time intersecting only slightly. 

All four continue on LOB till they halt, the couples facing each 
other about sixteen feet apart, with about eight feet between 
partners. "Sides" line up, partners separating and taking up 
positions about eight feet from the nearest "top" or "bottom," all 
facing the center. 

The "sides" should not wait till the others have got into 
position, but should move across into line as the others are fin- 
ishing their second ransom. 

Second Figure — Part II, 

The skaters are now in two lines about sixteen feet apart, W, 
N', N and E', in one line ; W, S, S' and E in the other, all facing 
the center. 

All skate a complete circle on the inner foot, i. e., N and E', 
W and S on the LOF , the remainder on the ROF. Top and 
bottom partners will come together after a quarter circle and 
separate, and after half circle the two lines will come together 
and, as they meet, they touch hands. 

At the completion of the circle all ransom off the other foot 
and return "home" on the OB. 

The figure is then started by E' and W, then by N and S', 
and finally by E and W. 

Particular attention should be paid to the dressing in the 
second part of this figure, which takes the place of the awkward 
shuffling forwards and backwards. 

Third Figure — Part I. (Ladies in the Center.) 

On the opening bar of music the four gentlemen advance with 
their partners and leave them facing outwards, about eight feet 
apart, and return "home " 


All turn half right, and at the slow note of music strike off 
LOF, and all ransom together after quarter circle; the ladies 
return to their starting places on ROB, put down LIB, and 
ransom round the center together from ROF twice, spreading 
out after the second ransom to "home" on LOB; gentlemen, 
when they complete their circle on ROB, continue to skate by 
the Back Scratch right around the full circle of the set, finishing 
on ROB at the positions the ladies started from. 

Third Figure — Part II. (Gentlemen in the Center.) 

The positions of the partners are now reversed, and all again 
turn half right and ransom round partners from LOF, the 
ladies changing to a ROF ransom round the inner circle when 
half a circle has been skated; they continue to ransom round 
this circle while their partners again Back Scratch round the 
outer circle till they reach "home." 

Repeat, reversing the directions of circling. 

Fourth Figure — Visiting — Part I. 

Top and bottom partners start off hand in hand on ROF, 
bowing to the ''sides" on their right and crossing over on LOF 
to the other "sides." 

As soon as the first couples have passed them the "sides" 
partners will separate, the ladies taking up positions on the 
right front of their partners, E' facing south and W facing 
north, partners being about seven feet apart. 

As the top and bottom couples approach the sides the partners 
separate, the gentlemen half facing the side gentlemen and 
ladies facing the side ladies. Each pair of partners will now 
occupy the corners of a square, and the four gentlemen will 
be in a line, N and S back to back and about eight feet apart. 

Fourth Figure — Part II. (First Half.) 

All turn half left and skate a complete circle on ROF, N, N', 
E and E' round one circle; S, S\ W and W round the other; 


then change to LOF and all skate round three-quarters of a 
circle, N and S together in the center, the others in circles of 
their own, ladies north and south of the first circles. 

After three-quarters circle is skated all ransom off the ROF, 
turning together at the circumference of the first circle and 
describing a larger circle than the first. 

As this circle is completed all put down RIB and left turn 
towards the center of their first circle. All will now have shifted 
a quarter circle round and N will be in E's place, E' in E's, and 
so on. 

Fourth Figure — Part II. (Second Half.) 

Three-quarters of the first circle is then skated on LOF \ the 
second circle complete on ROF, and all ransom off LOF, con- 
tinuing on ROB to "home." 

The figure is then skated by the "sides" visiting tops and 
bottoms in a similar way. 

Then repeat by tops and bottoms "visiting" the couples on 
their right, after bowing to those on their left, the strokes 
throughout being on the other feet to those used in the first part, 
i. e., the first circle will be skated on the ROF and all will get 
home on LOB. Finally, sides visit bottoms and tops in reversed 
order. (See "Second Time" on Diagrams). 

It is important to keep proper station in this figure, and to 
keep in time with the strokes and turns, or confusion will result. 

The second circles of the ladies in the first part should be 
exactly north and south of the first circle. In learning this and 
other figures it will help if the centers of the circles are marked 
on the floor. The ransom circles should just touch the first 
OF circles. 

Fifth Figure — Grand Chain — Part I. 

At the opening bar of music, partners turn outwards, gen- 
tlemen to the right, ladies to the left and outside their partners. 
All start ROF and proceed in long strokes LOF \ ROF, LOF, 


,ound the outer ring, ladies passing gentlemen on each stroke, 
inside them the second stroke, outside the third stroke. The 
fourth stroke should bring the partners together again opposite 
their starting places, when they should ransom round each other 
and return in the reverse direction, the two streams passing 
inside and outside on alternate strokes. 

On meeting again, partners ransom round each other once 
more and go "home" on the OB. 

Fifth Figure — Part II. 

(i) Tops (N and N') advance hand in hand towards S and S', 
wheel round and separate, halting about eight feet apart on the 
top line. E and E' fall in about six feet behind them, W and 
W six feet behind, and S and S' bring up the rear, partners fac- 
ing each other. 

(ii) All skate a complete circle, ladies on the ROF, gentle- 
men on the LOF, the two lines coming together after a quarter- 
circle, when partners touch hands; another three-quarters circle 
is then skated on the other foot, the lines again meeting and 
separating, and then all ransom outwards and, as partners come 
together on the OB, they turn to forwards and the top couple 
separate and wheel outwards, the gentlemen behind following N 
and the ladies N'. 

Fifth Figure — Part II (Hi). 

Dotted lines show end of Part II (ii). 

The two files skate to the south, where partners wheel in 
together at the bottom line, join hands and proceed "home" and 
prepare for the next grand chain. 

Repeat chain and Part II with S and S' leading; with E and 
E' leading; with W and W leading. 

Final Grand Chain. 

Note — All forward movements on alternate feet should be 
done on the Cross Roll, if all the skaters in the set can do this; 


othei wise it is better for all to skate them without the Cross 

Rules for Competitions in Valsing. 

Adopted by the International Skating Club of America, Prince's 

Skating Club, London, St. Moritz International 

Skating Club, and Other Clubs. 

The customary rules obtaining in figure skating competitions 
apply to valse competitions. 

The valse to be skated shall be the ordinary ''three-step," gen- 
erally known as the ''once-back" ; but modifications or varia- 
tions, such as alterations in the relative position of the partners 
or the introduction of changes, brackets, rockers, and counters, 
may be permitted by the judges, provided they fulfill the essen- 
tial conditions of being sustained balanced movements on one 
foot. The "Grapevine," "Mohawk," "Spread-Eagle," "Jackson 
Haines," and "Swedish" valses, which are mainly two-footed 
movements, are consequently not admitted. 

The competing couples shall skate the first test set by the 
judges in the order of the starting numbers as drawn by lot. 
After the first test the order will be so far changed for each 
subsequent test that the couple which before was first will then 
have the last place. 

Preliminary Tests. 

The following preliminary tests are recommended with such 
modifications as circumstances may demand : 

(a) All the couples shall valse twice around the rink or other 
area in the direct or positive direction. 

(b) Each couple singly shall valse twice around a large eight, 
the centers of the two circles being indicated by chairs or some 
similar object. (Each circle is usually traversed in three steps, 
the rotation being changed at the point where the two circles of 
the eight meet, or intersect ; that is, at the center of the figure. 
The chairs may be placed about thirty feet apart.) 


(c) All the couples together shall valse twice around the rink, 
in the reverse or negative direction. 

After the three preliminary tests have been skated, the judges 
shall hold a meeting to select the couples best qualified to 
compete for the finals. 

For this purpose each judge shall set down on a voting paper 
the names of the couples he or she considers should be selected. 
If the competing couples are seven, or more than seven, in 
number, each judge shall select live; and if the couples are less 
than seven in number, then each judge shall select four. 

Each voting paper shall be handed to the chairman, who shall, 
with the aid of one of the other judges acting as scrutineer, 
add the votes together. The couples selected shall be determined 
by the number of votes received. Ties shall be decided by a 
second vote. 

The names of the selected couples shall then be announced, 
and they shall then be required to skate a final test or tests, 
which may be the following: 

Final Test or Tests. 

(d) Each selected couple singly shall valse twice around a 
large double-eight, the centers of the three circles being indi- 
cated by chairs or similar objects. 

Other further tests may be imposed, if required, by the judges 
at their discretion. 

Each of the judges shall award to the selected couples marks 
from o to 6 for each of the following points : o representing 
''bad"; 2, "passable"; 4, "good," and 6, "faultless"— 1, 3 and 5 
being intermediate — the marks being set down on a marking 
card prepared for the purpose. 

(e) Each selected couple, singly, shall valse around the rink, 
in the positive direction, and then, without a stopping, shall 
change to the reverse, and valse once around the rink in that 

































i— i 




















.C C 

* E 

W c 

o w 


G v. 

> £> 




' > 








i '5b 


« V 

i o 

1 +-> 





























G 2 


• • . 

. . 


1— 1 


h- 1 


o G 
•.- u 

§ H 

2 § 


otaaon . . . 
vement. . . 













13 s 


moment. . 
Itaneous R 
ony of Mo 























% 3 E 

a s £ 

c3 .5 c5 

3 £ 





bo C 




w w g 






rt j>, -d 



bo i! co 

o *s 

+• b 

r2 a. 

•n •— • >» 

-, J= 

o 3 

a. c 

^! O v 

<u ^_ 


cu o 

G* rt 

*p en "ja 

E >> 

.5 X 


u o 

3 t- 

ij ^ c 


W < 

Cfl C 

Cfl < P 

H « 

-> ci 

co t 

»n <o *i 

00 or> 


The points for which marks are to be awarded are: 

A — Carriage. B — Grace. C — Unity. D — Time. 

as analyzed in the specimen form shown, notes on which are 

Other things being equal, higher marks shall be awarded for 
greater length of sweep and size of curve, which, provided true 
time to the music be kept, will, of course, involve greater speed 
over the ice. 

The marking card shall contain the names of the competing 
couples, with the numbers they have drawn by lot, and the 
points for which marks are to be given and shall be in the form 
shown on page 178. 

The programme should contain the names of the competing 
couples with their alloted numbers, the tests to be skated, the 
music selected, the method of marking, etc., and may be in 
the form shown on page 180. 

After the conclusion of the final test, another meeting of the 
judges shall be held, when each judge shall add up the total of 
the number of marks awarded by him to each competing couple. 

Each judge shall then arrange the couples in order, according 
to the total number of marks given on his marking card, so that 
the couple with the highest number of marks receives the ordinal 
number 1, the next the ordinal number 2, and so on. 

The judges shall then hand their marking cards to the chair- 
man, who shall, with the aid of the judge acting as scrutineer, 
make up the result according to the following rule : 

The winning couple is that which is placed first by an abso- 
lute majority of the judges. If no couple has an absolute 
majority, the result is obtained by adding the ordinal numbers 
assigned by the individual judges. If two or more couples are 
alike in the sum of the ordinal numbers, then the sum of the 
total number of marks on the individual cards decides between 

Of the results, there must be published at least the total num- 
ber of marks from each card, as well as the final numbers result- 
ing from them. 

180 spalding's athletic library. 

Skating Club Valsing Competition 

I. Miss „ and Mr 

2. Mrs .and Mr 

[and so on] 


The competing couples skate the first test in the order of the starting 
numbers, as drawn by lot. After this, the order will be so far changed 
for each test that the couple which was first shall then have the last 

First Test (a) All the couples together to valse twice round the rink 
in the direct or positive direction. Valse (title of music selected). 

Second Test (b) Each couple, singly, to valse twice round a large 
"eight." Valses (titles of music selected). 

Third Test (c) All the couples together to valse twice round the rink 
in the reverse or negative direction. Valse (title of music selected). 

After this, five of the competing couples will be selected by the 
judges to skate the final tests. 

Final Tests (d) Each couple, singly, to valse twice round a large 
double "eight." Valses (titles of music selected). 

(e) Each selected couple, singly, to valse once round the rink 
in the positive direction, and then, without stopping, to change to 
the reverse, and valse round the rink in that direction. Valses 
(titles of music selected). 

Marks o to 6 will be awarded for each of the following: 

A — Carriage. B — Grace. C — Unity. D — Time. 
Note — Other things being equal, higher marks will be awarded for 
greater length of sweep and size of curve, which, provided true time 
to the music be kept, will, of course, involve greater speed over the ice. 

The result will be determined according to the Regulations of the 
International Skating Union for Competitors in Figure Skating. 


Valses Suitable for the Ice. 


The Dollar Princess. 
The Girl in the Train. 
Waltz D^eam. 

Pomone (Waldteulel). 
Reponse a l'Amoureuse (Berger), 
Quand l'Amour meurt. 
Sobre las Olas (Cremeux)» 

(See Page i6.i) 



Rules for Judging International Competitions. 
Skating Tests — Programmes. 

Judges, Judging and Competitions. 

In the European and World's Championships there must be 
at least five judges; but in minor contests there may be as few 
as three, who should be chosen, if possible, from among expert 
skaters. The various skating clubs should see to it that their 
most competent skaters should learn how to judge. The best prac- 
tice in this connection is the judging of novice and junior contests. 

The judges must be separated from each other while forming 
their opinions, which must be made up independently. Their 
marks must be written down on the official judging cards. The 
result is made up as follows : 

On the judging card each School Figure is multiplied by the 
"Factor," and this is given to every figure beforehand and is 
made up in accordance with its difficulty. When all the judging 
cards are added up, each competitor receives his mark for the 
School Figures given by each judge. In the Free Skating 

a. Denotes the contents of the programme (difficulty and 

variety) ; 

b. Denotes the manner of performance (harmonious 

sequence, sureness, position, etc.) ; 

with the marks from o to 6 reckoned the same way as in the 
School Figures. 

The multiplication is so arranged that the highest marks 
obtainable for Free Skating must not be more than two-thirds 

The Famous European Figure Skater 











h- 1 












1— I 














s « 

Ei Q 


< O 




11 &4 







j « 


D O 


fc ^ 



P H 




o s 



F « 






G <j 








































of the highest marks possible to receive in the School Figures. 
The marks for the Free Skating and the marks for School Fig- 
ures, added together, give for each skater the sum of the num- 
bers which he receives from each judge. Each judge counts 
up the marks for each contestant in the School and Free Skating, 
and the skater who gets the highest marks receives the first place, 
the next the second place, and so on. If there are two or more 
competitors with the same number of marks, first place is given 
to the skater who has received the highest marks in the School 
Figures. If there be a tie, the result is obtained by adding up 
the "Plattziffern" or place numbers. If two or more skaters 
have the same place number, the decision is arrived at by count- 
ing together the sum of the marks on each card, and should this 
not give a decision, the marks for the School Figures are added 
together. The second and third prizes are awarded in the same 
manner. . 

The judges take the numbers o to 6 in deciding the marks for 
each School Figure, thus : o — not skated ; 2 — passable ; 4 — 
good ; 6 — perfect. The numbers 1 to 5 are intermediate. The 
judges reserve the right to put in fractions. 

In deciding the points the judges must first consider correct 
tracings on the ice; secondly, position, carriage and movement; 
thirdly, size of the figure; and fourthly, the placing of the figure 
in triple repetitions. The total result must appear on each 
judging card, also the marks for the School Figures and Free 
Skating, and also the total result. 

In the World's and European Championships and the Ladies' 
Championship, if the International Skating Union desires to see 
the cards, the originals must be sent to it in each case not later 
than one month after the event. Any other method of judging 
these contests is irregular 



Marking Card 

I. Compulsory 


Starting Numbers and Names. 

























































tal P 



Compulsory Figs.! 
(Highest possiblej 







II.— Free Skat- 


(a) For the Con-i 

tents of the Pro-> 









gramme ) 

(b) For the man-j 

ner of its per- 1 















Multiplied by the\ 








Total P 

sints fori 

Free Skating. ( 

(Highest possible 


Total Points for\ 

Compulsory and ; 

Free Skating ...J 

Serial Number of \ 
each Skater .../ 


Marking b 

y the figures o to 6; of which o = failed, 2 = passed, 

4 = good, 6 = 

faultless ; £, i, i£, 2$, 3, 3^, 4^, 3, 5$ represent inter- 

mediate grad 





Class IV. 
Plain circle eight (Xos. i, 2 and 3). 
Change of edge (Xos. 5a and 5b). 
Three (Xos. 7, oa and pb). 
Double-three (Xos. 10, 11 and 12). 
Change of edge — double-three (Xos. 28a and 28b). 

Class ill 
Plain circle eight (Xo. 4). 
Change of edge (Xos. 6a and 6b). 
Three (Xos. 8a and 8b). 
Loop (Xos. 14 and 15). 
Counter (Xos. 23a and 23b). 
One-foot eight (Xos. 24a and 24b). 
Change of edge — three (Xos. 26a and 26b). 
Change of edge — three (Xos. 27a and 27b). 
Change of edge — double-three (X T os. 29a and 29b). 
Change of edge — loop (Xos. 30a and 30b). 

Class II. 
Double-three (Xo. 13). 
Loop (Xos. 16 and 17). 
Bracket (Xos. 18a, 18b, 19a and 19b). 
Counter (Nos. 22a and 22b). 
One- foot eight (Xos. 25a and 25b). 
Change of edge — bracket (Xos. 32a, 32b, 33a and 33b) 
Three — change — three (Xos. 34a, 34b). 

Class I. 

Rocker (Nos. 20a, 20b, 21a and 21b). 

Change of edge — loop (Xos. 31a, 31b). 

Three — change — three (X"os. 35a, 35b). 

Double-three — change — double-three (X T os. 36a, 36b, 37a, 37b). 

Loop — change — loop (Xos. 38a, 38b, 39a, 39b). 

Bracket — change — bracket (Xos. 40a, 40b, 41a and 41b). 




Imposed Upon Skaters Who Aspire to the Possession of Badges. 

Issued by the St. Moritz Skating Association, 

Winter 1911-12. 


Lower Test. 

Eight— ROF—LOF; Eight— R IF— LI F ; Eight—ROB—LOB. 
Change of edge— a. ROFI—LIFO; b. LOFI—RIFO. 
Threes— ROF T IB—LOF T IB. 

I.S.U.No. Higher Test. 

6a R OBI—L IBO Change 

6b L OBI—R IBO Change 

pa L IF—T OB ; L OB—T—IF Three 

9b L IF—T OB ; R OB—T—IF Three 

12 R OB— T— IF— T— OB; LOB— T— IF— T— OB, Double-Three 

24a R OFI—L IFO One-foot Eight 

24b L OFI—R IFO One-foot Eight 

26a R OFI—T—OB ; L OBI— T— OF Change-Three 

26b L OFI—T—OB ; R OBI— T— OF Change-Three 

30a R OFI—LP—IF; L IFO— LP— OF Change-Loop 

30b L OFI—LP—IF; R IFO— LP— OF Change-Loop 

Candidates will also be required to skate a free programme of 
three minutes' duration. 

Abbreviations — R, means right; L, means left; F, means for- 
wards ; B, means backwards ; LP, means loop ; T , means three ; 
O, means outside ; I , means inside. 


Lower Test. 

1 — The four edges, namely, Outside Forward, Inside Forward, 
Outside Back, Inside Back. 

2 — The four changes of edge, namely, Outside Forward chang- 
ing to Inside Forward, Inside Forward changing to Outside For- 


ward, Outside Back changing to Inside Back, Inside Back 
changing to Outside Back. 

3 — Forward Eights and Inside Forward Eights. 

4 — The C. Turn. 

Higher Test. 

Candidates may be called upon to skate any movements of the 
Lower Test. 

Also, the turns, A, B and D, Outside Forward and Inside 
Forward Threes to a center. 

The following Combined Figures : i. Forward, and inside, 
and forward — turn about — change circle and once back — turn- 

2. Twice back — about — change circle and inside and forward 
off center — turn — change, and forward — meet. 

3. Forward turn, and inside back around, and inside, and 
forward — pass — meet. 

4. Forward, and forward out around of two turns, and once 
back— meet— and back, and forward turn, and inside forward 
about and forward — meet. 

5. Inside change — turn out — around — dismiss. 

Programme of the Minto Skating Club, Ottawa. 

Every recognized Canadian skating club, or branch thereof, 
may send one or more club teams for competition in. 

1st. Individual Skating. Minto Challenge Cup. 

2d. Pair-Skating — Combined Figures. Minto Challenge Cups. 

3d. Fours Skating — Combined Figures. Grey Challenge Trophy. 

By the new deed of gift from Earl Grey, with the Grey Chal- 
lenge Trophy, each club must enter one or more pair of indi- 
vidual skaters (one lady and one gentleman) ; one or more pair 
(or hand-in-hand) skaters (one lady and one gentleman), and 
one or more fours (two ladies and two gentlemen). Thus a club 
may enter four or more skaters. The highest aggregate score 
obtained by the two individual skaters (one lady and one gentle- 
man), the one pair, and the one four of the same club, will desig- 


nate the winning team, to which the Grey Challenge Trophy shall 
be presented for the year. 

Minto Challenge Cups. — The competition for these cups, pre- 
sented by the Earl and Countess of Minto (one as first prize for 
individual skating, whether by lady or gentleman, and the other 
two cups as first prizes for hand-in-hand figure skating by ladies 
and gentlemen in pairs) will be held with that of the Grey 

Grey Challenge Trophy. — This trophy will be retained for the 
year by the club to which the winning team belongs, and the 
competition for the following year will be held at its head- 
quarters, subject to the conditions laid down in the deed of gift. 
The competition for this trophy will be skated and judged simul- 
taneously (in the individual and pair events) with the Minto 
Challenge Cups contest mentioned above. 

This competition will be under the auspieces of the Minto Skat- 
ing Club and under the patronage of their Royal Highnesses the 
Duke and Duchess of Connaught. 

Skating Regulations. — The competition will be divided into 
compulsory figures and optional figures (free skating). The 
adjudication will follow the whole number of marks attained in 
both divisions. 

In assigning a mark there ranks, in the first place, correct trac- 
ing on the ice; second, carriage and movement; third, size of 
figures ; fourth, accurate covering of the traces in the triple repe- 
tition. These four points of view count as of descending im- 
portance in the foregoing order. 

Compulsory Figures. — The compulsory figures may be done in 
any style at the pleasure of the competitor, but must be done on 
each foot alternately at least three times. 

The success of each figure will be marked by multiplying the 
value of the figure, as given above, by one of the numbers, i, 2, 
3, 4, 5, 6, of which o, "not skated"; 2, "pass"; 4, "good"; 6, 
"faultless"; 1, 3, and 5 being intermediate. 

Free Figures. — Each competitor will be allowed (in each sec- 
tion) a period of four (4) minutes in which to skate any figures 
or combinations thereof desired. 


The free skating will be valued in each section for the con- 
tents (difficulty and variety) of the programme performed, in 
which size and sweep and harmonious composition are to be 

This valuation will then be multiplied by the numbers o to 6, 
with the same significance as in the compulsory figures; i. e., for 
sureness, carriage, pace, and general manner of performance. 

"LOB i£8 CD !tlF 

£L— j" 18 f~L JLOF ROfOrOF R OF ( 

No.O * , * No >2 LOB 

I . «o ' ROB J— I 

Pairs. Fours. 

Singles. Value. 

i.— Eight— OF 4 

2. — Eight—// 7 3 

3.— Three— OF 6 

4. — Change — Double-Three — OF to IF 9 

Total, 22 
Doubles (0* Pair-Skating). 

1. — Once back and IB and OF center off three and 
IF and F meet 

2. — Twice back center change and IF off meet 4 

3 — Once back and F and IF } spread-eagle and F 

meet 7 

4. — F and /F reverse "Q" and back and F meet and 

entire 6 

Total, 22 


Fours (Two Pairs). 

I. — F and F three about and F meet 5 

2. — F and IF Bracket and Once-back and F meet. ... 5 

(Four Individuals.) 

3. — Once-back and F about and Once-back off meet. . 6 
4. — 'Twice-back and F and IF, center three and IB 

and IF and i 7 meet 6 

Total, 22 
All of above figures to be skated to a center. 
"Fours" comprise two pairs to same center and four indi- 
viduals to same center. , 

Deed of Gift of the Connaught Cup. 

With a view to the general encouragement and development 
of skating in combination by pairs and individuals, and more 
particularly with a view to the encouragement and development 
of "combined skating" along the lines at present approved by 
the National Skating Association of Great Britain in the general 
style and pose approved by the International Skating Union, 
His Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught, Governor General 
of Canada, hereby gives and assigns to the trustees hereinafter 
mentioned and their successors in trust, a trophy to be held by 
them upon the following trusts and subject to the following 
conditions, that is to say: 

1. The trophy shall be known as the "Connaught Cup!' 

2. The trophy shall be vested in and held by a board of three 
trustees (hereinafter called the trustees), which shall consist of : 

(a) Colonel Lowther or other the official secretary for the time 
being of the present or any future Governor General of Canada; 

(b) General Mackenzie and Mr. John Thompson, both of the 
City of Ottawa, Canada, who shall hold office until their substi- 
tutes are appointed under the provisions hereof. 

3. The committee of the Minto Skat'ng Club of Ottawa shall, 
as soon as conveniently may be after the next annual meeting 


oi the club, appoint two persons, residents of the City of Ottawa, 
to act as trustees for the ensuing year in the place and stead of 
the trustees named in paragraph 2 (6) hereof, and thereafter in 
each year, after each annual meeting of the club, shall in like 
manner appoint two residents of the City of Ottawa to act as 
trustees for the next ensuing year, and so on from time to time. 

4. In the event of any temporary vacancy occurring among 
the trustees, the remaining trustees or trustee shall have power 
to act notwithstanding such vacancy. 

5. In the event of the Minto Skating Club of Ottawa becom- 
ing defunct, the trophy shall revert to the donor, or other the 
Governor General of Canada for the time being. 

6. The trophy shall be open to competition by teams of four 
individuals, consisting of two ladies and two gentlemen, from 
any recognized skating club in Canada or elsewhere. Provided, 
however, that any union or association from any one country 
may enter a team comprised of bona fide resident members of 
one club. 

7. Each member of any team desiring to compete for the 
trophy must be a bona fide amateur to the satisfaction of the 
trustees. For the purpose hereof, an amateur shall mean an 
amateur as defined from time to time by the National Skating 
Association of Great Britain. 

8. The rulings of the trustees with regard to eligibility of 
competitors shall be final and conclusive. 

9. Competitions for the trophy shall be held in Ottawa only. 

10. Competitions shall be held at least once in every two years. 

11. Subject to the provisions hereof, and of the rules and 
regulations made hereunder, the trophy, when won at any com- 
petition, shall remain in the custody of the club to which the 
winning team shall belong, until the next competition. 

12. If for any competition no team shall enter or be prepared 
to compete, the trophy shall be immediately returned to the 

13. If for any competition only one team shall be prepared 
to compete, it shall be adjudged the winner of the trophy upon 
skating the programme prescribed. 


14. The trustees are empowered at any time, at their discre- 
tion, to dispense with the holding of a competition for the 
trophy within the time provided hereby, and may allow a period 
of two years to lapse without any competition being held, but in 
that event, if a competition is not held during the following 
season, the trophy shall revert to the donor or other the Gov- 
ernor General of Canada for the time being. For the purposes 
of this paragraph a competition shall be regarded as having been 
held, provided that all necessary and usual arrangements have 
been made therefor by or with the approval of the trustees. 

15. For all competitions the trustees shall select not less than 
three and not more than seven judges, who shall, as far as pos- 
sible, be from among professional or amateur experts in the 
different existing styles or schools of skating. 

16. All expenses incidental to any competition, including the 
providing of individual prizes for the members of the winning 
team, shall be borne by the Minto Skating Club of Ottawa. 

17. All competitions for the trophy, and the figures and pro- 
gramme to be skated thereat and the arrangements therefor, 
shall be subject to the approval of the, trustees. 

18. The trustees shall be charged with the general supervision, 
custody and control of the trophy, and with the carrying into 
effect of the objects of this deed of gift. 

19. For the purposes aforesaid, and for the carrying out of 
the objects hereof, the trustees shall make such general rules and 
regulations as they may deem necessary or desirable and, in 
particular, rules and regulations regarding competitions, the care 
and preservation of the trophy, the return of the trophy by the 
club for the time being holding the same, the insuring of the 
trophy, and the engraving thereon from time to time of the 
results of competitions. 

20. In the event of any question arising as to the proper 
interpretation hereof, or of any of the rules and regulations 
made hereunder, the decision of the trustees shall be final and 

Dated at Ottawa, Canada, this first day of January. A. D 


The following are the Compulsory Figures in the International 
skating competition for the Connaught Trophy : 

1 — International School Figure No. 5b — 

£ i\ Serpentine 1 

^>>\aj 2 — International School Figure No. 22a — 

v ^V ') -n Counters 3 

-«— 4|^ — 3 — International School Figure No. 26b — 

No. 5. Change-three 2 

I lob ^ — International School Figure No. 28a — 

qi/^ \ Change-double three 1 

*(; j 5 — Forward — and forward "Q" out — and 

or (' \o forward in. (See Diagram) 3 

V/^f\v.o < \aj ° — Twice back — and forward center Mo- 

*Wty&Y°/* hawk, back "Q" out— and forward 

— <^Ly^ m - ( See Diagram) 4 

No - 6 - Total, 14 

The following are general regulations regarding competitions 
for the Connaught Trophy : 

Compulsory Figures to be skated without music. 

Free Skating — Each four shall skate five minutes free skating 
to music. They shall skate in unison, but not necessarily to 

Competitions will be conducted generally according to the 
Regulations of the International Skating Union. 

Particulars may be obtained from the Hon. Secretary-Treasurer 
of the Minto Skating Club, Ottawa, Canada. 



Ice Rinks and the Making of Ice. Carnivals, Skate 
Sailing. An Inexpensive Private Ice Rink. 

Maintaining a Skating Surface. 
Flooding — In this country, at any rate in the latitude of New 
York, flooding is out of the question. First, because the tem- 
perature is not steady enough, even during a cold wave. Second, 
when there is so much dust, oil, and other dirt flying, it is impos- 
sible to sweep clean enough to prevent "chipping." Third, the 
usual effect here of flooding is a thin freeze on top, not quick 
enough, even in very cold weather, to keep ahead of the leakage, 
which leaves air spots and white spaces, practically incurable. 
In a climate like the Engadine a flood of 2 to 4 inches will freeze 
solid in one night, for it freezes from 2.30 P. M. to 10.30 A. M. 
the next day, and so thick a coat as this will not chip off. 

Spraying — On a lake with water underneath the ice the ideal 
way is to plane off the rough, cut-up surface and let the frost 
make up thickness on the bottom of the ice. When the tempera- 
ture is below 32 degrees and over 5 to 10 degrees, spraying is the 
quickest way to renew a skating surface. When spraying do not 
be deceived into squirting up into the air, except when the tem- 
perature is high, and then only when there is a good deal of 
latent cold in the ice. It often happens that, after a very cold 
spell, the temperature suddenly rises. The surface is moist. 
It almost softens. At nightfall the temperature falls to 32. If 
there is still a lot of frost stored in the ice you can spray and 
expect a freeze at from 32 to 30 degrees, sometimes even at 33 
or 34, but if the ice has lost its stored-up frost, t. c, after another 
warm noontime or hot sun, it is useless to spray unless the ther- 
mometer goes down to 25 or 26 degrees. 


Instead of "squirting" up into the air it is almost better to 
spray through as fine a rose as possible as wide and thin a swath 
as possible, beginning at the leeward side and zigzagging back and 
forth quickly enough, according to the thermometer, to match 
water to water. Then the surface will freeze smooth. If you 
squirt at random or do not match water to water the surface will 
be ridged and uneven. 

Planing — Spray ice will not stand the sun. The first stages of 
thaw, however, can be utilized by planing off the spray ice down 
to the hard ice. Ice frozen at 10 degrees or less will stand a good 
deal of sun. It takes a skilled man to set his plane and drive his 
horse so that he doesn't leave ridges ; but it can be done, as is 
proved by the success of the ice-makers at Brae-Burn and the 
Country Club of Brookline, Mass. It is very simple if a man 
begins intelligently and uses a little common sense. 

1. In short, never flood. 

2. When spraying, put on as little water as possible at a time. 
Repeat several times, matching water to water. (On a very cold 
night the squirter will have to run to keep ahead of the freezing.) 

3. To have a good skating surface when it is too warm to 
spray, plane. 

4. Never spray when the thermometer is near zero. It will 
crack your ice all to pieces. 

5. Mend holes and cracks with a "putty" made of snow and 
water. Warm water will freeze quicker than cold; cracks, there- 
fore, may be repaired quicker and smoother with hot water out 
of a pot and nozzle. 

6. Wimbledon scrapers and snow scoops are most serviceable 
in clearing off skate chips, or clearing off after a planer. 

7. Three ox four men sweeping with wide broom-corn brooms 
in overlapping lines, preceded by a scraper, is an effective method 
of clearing off the ice. 


Carnivals, festivals and games are easily arranged where a rea- 
sonably large skating area can be obtained and are most delight- 
ful winter sport. Competitions in figure skating, in dancing, in 
pair-skating, and in what may be called acrobatics on the ice, 
such as jumping for distance or height, basket ball, base ball, 
tennis and push ball. 

Skate sailing is another thoroughly interesting use of the skate. 
Almost incredible speed is obtained with a properly rigged skate 
sail, even up to thirty miles an hour, and the implements for the 
sport are so simple that they can be improvised almost anywhere 
and, when their use is over for the day, can be rolled up and 
carried away under one's arm. In general the most satisfactory 
skate sail is rectangular in shape, having three spars or spreaders, 
and the material known as balloon silk is best suited to this use. 

An Inexpensive Private Ice Rink. 

Select a level piece of sod ground, say 20 feet by 40 feet, and 
build a clay loam dike around the border 12 inches high by 12 
inches wide on the top with sloping sides, thus 


Where the soil is sandy, or the turf will not hold water, cover 
the bottom surface with about four inches of clay to make every- 
thing water-tight. 

Never allow water to stand in it and, if built early in the fall. 
provide an outlet to carry off water that may accumulate from 
the fall rains. 

Everything being in readiness, when the thermometer falls 
eight (8) degrees below freezing, connect the garden hose with 
the sill-cock, use the fine rose nozzle, and play the stream up in 
the air so as to have it come down in the form of a fine mist 
and freeze on striking the ground, as no water must be allowed to 
stand in puddles nor run on striking the surface at any time, as it 
will make shelly ice. 

Skating may be commenced on one inch of ice on the first 
night after spraying. 


Continue to spray every cold night until the ice is six inches 

Snow must not be allowed to remain on the ice after a storm, 
as it injures the ice for skating. 

A rink of this size will accommodate twelve persons, may be 
constructed without harm to the lawn, and is perfectly safe, 
affording the most pleasant and health-giving amusement for both 
sexes and all ages. 

k I llll I I* II i\l 


No. XH. Spalding "Intercollegiate" Hockey Skate 

No. XH. "Intercollegiate" Hockey Skates. Blades are of Synthloy steel, 
hardened and tempered. Finely polished, nickel-plated and buffed. 
Sizes 9^,10,10^,11,11^,12 inches. 

We recommend that for men No. XH. Skates We recommend that for women No. XH Skates 

be attached to Spalding Shoes No. 339. be attached to Spalding Shoes No. 309R. 

No extra charge for attaching. No extra charge for attaching. 

No. XF. " Iceland" Skates. For skating shoes with heels. Heavy nickel-plating, 
finely polished. Sizes &/ 2 , 9, 9>£, 10, 10^, 11. 1 1 K inches. 

No. XF Skates have blades of specially treated Synthite steel, hardened and 

tempered. Suitable for either hockey, rink or general skating. Featuring the 

Spalding combination shaped blade. 

We recdmmend that for men No. XF Skates be We recommend that for women No. XF Skates be 

attached to Nos. 319 or 336 shoes. attached to Nos. 309 or 340 shoes. 

No extra charge for attaching. No extra charge for attaching. 



No. HR. Spalding "Carnival" Figure Skate 

No. HR. "Carnival" Figure Skates, for men or 
women. Rounded toe, special teeth. Blades of 
Synthite steel, hardened and tempered. 
Polished, nickel-plated and buffed. 

Sizes 9, 9 l A % 9 2 3 , 10, 10'.;, 10-;,, 11. 
1 1 ^3, 1 1 — 3 » inches. 

We recommend that for men No. HR Skates 
be attached to Nos. 319 or 336 Shoes. 

We recommend that for women No. HR 
Skates be attached to Nos. 309 or 340 Shoes. 

All skates listed in this book are made 
Showing Spalding " Carnival " Figure Skate No. HR by A. G. Spalding & Bros, in the Spalding 
fastened to Spalding Shoe No. 319, for men. Skate Factory, Chicopee, Mass. 

Send for complete catalogue. See list of Spalding Athletic Goods Stores on inside front 

cover of this book. 


No. 300 

Wear this shoewith 
No. RS Model and 
other expert figure 

Figure Skating Shoes for Men 

Made Especially for Figure Skating 
No. 300. Expert model. Black kan- 


Special" Skating Shoes 

No. 336. Best quality calf. Laces low. 
Bluchercut. Special lined. Full heels. 
Recommended particularly for use with 
any Spalding high grade skates requir- 
ing full-heel shoes. 

Spalding "Expert" 
Racing and Hockey Shoes 

No. 337. For racing and for partic- 
ularly fast hockey players. Fine 
quality kangaroo leather, very 
soft and pliable, extremely light 
weight; reinforced inside over 
ankle, laces low. Blucher style. 
Special counter supports foot without 
tiring the wearer. Very light soles. 

We recommend these shoes for use with 
Spalding Tubular Racing Skates, also 
with any style racing skates made to be 
riveted to shoes. 

Lambs' Wool Tongue 

No. B. Detachable. 
Awonderful com- 
fort and conven- 
ience. (Patented 
January 15,1918) 

No. B 

SPECIAL NOTICE— Spalding "Dri-Foot," 

if used on soles and uppers, will add 
greatly to wear of skating and hockey 

Semd for complete catalogue. See lilt of Spalding Athletic Good* Storet on imide front 

cover of thit book. 

The most 

on the ice 

Whizz along like a streak . . . 
on Spalding Blue Streaks. The 
lightest, fastest, strongest ice 
skates made! Fine steel, fine 
skill. ..both go into Spalding 
Blue Streak tubular skates to 
make them the greatest skates 
on record. Handsomely finished 
in blue enamel and nickel. 
Racing and hockey models 
mounted on Spalding skating 
shoes. Spalding is the only 
maker who prod uces both skate 
and shoe. So the Blue Streak 
is the only perfectly fitted com- 
bination on the ice. 

Blue Streak 

Button Fronts, 
V-necks, Pull-overs — 
They're all here ! 


you buy a Spalding Sweater for its good looks, 
its light, soft, closely knitted wool — its air of 
sportsmanlike smartness. 

Years from today you will congratulate your- 
self for buying it — the way it held shape, color 
and good looks, in spite of the grinding wear 
you gave it. 

Spalding Sweaters are the least expensive when 
you consider dollars of price to seasons of wear! 



Sportsmen— whatever the 

Sport— you 11 find Spalding 

Equipment Authentic 

A. G. Spalding & Bros, are the only 
athletic goods manufacturers in the world 
making a complete line of team equip- 
ment, outfitting the athlete in every sport 
from head to foor. 

Every Spalding store has a special depart- 
ment .catering to colleges and schools. 
School coaches, superintendents, and 
physical directors are invited to utilize 
this feature of our business.